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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions, e.g., the National Science Foundation (NSF); the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the America COMPETES Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David A.
Description: The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D. & Matthews, Christine M.
Description: In the 21st century, global competition and rapid advances in science and technology will challenge the scientific and technical proficiency of the U.S. workforce. This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nations' response to societal challenges, and the education of Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. This report describes the science and engineering community, policymakers' interest in that community and its various endeavors, and the organizations that provide science and technology policy advice to agencies of the federal government and/or Members of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
Description: Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals

Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Description: The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Concurrent Enrollment Programs

Concurrent Enrollment Programs

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Mercer, Charmaine
Description: Initiated in part as a proposal to reform U.S. high schools, concurrent enrollment programs enable high school aged students to take college level course work and receive college credit while enrolled in high school. Concurrent enrollment programs can be best described as a secondary/postsecondary school hybrid. This report provides a brief history of these programs and a description of the different types of programs, including participation data.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments

The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments

Date: August 26, 1985
Creator: Whittier, Charles H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues

The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues

Date: March 9, 2006
Creator: Herz, Elicia J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department