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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell

Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell

Date: May 27, 1988
Creator: Lyke, Robert F
Description: This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA

Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA

Date: May 7, 1993
Creator: The Education Section
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David A.
Description: The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Congressional Intent

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Congressional Intent

Date: May 19, 1995
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview

Date: June 4, 1997
Creator: Aleman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sex Discrimination in Education: Overview of Title IX

Sex Discrimination in Education: Overview of Title IX

Date: January 14, 1998
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W & Galemore, Gary L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Issues in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session

Education Issues in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session

Date: January 26, 1998
Creator: Irwin, Paul M
Description: Several education issues are being considered by the 105th Congress. Some of the congressional action results from expiring legislation, such as the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA). Other action may occur because of debate over the appropriate federal role in education, including federal support for school reform or national testing. This report provides a brief summary of education issues anticipated for the 2nd Session, as well as a synopsis of education activity during the 1st Session.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Goals 2000: Educate America Act Implementation Status and Issues

Goals 2000: Educate America Act Implementation Status and Issues

Date: February 17, 1998
Creator: Stedman, James B & Riddle, Wayne C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Charter Schools: State Developments and Federal Policy Options

Charter Schools: State Developments and Federal Policy Options

Date: April 6, 1998
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C; Stedman, James B & Aleman, Steven R
Description: Charter schools are public elementary or secondary schools which are released from a variety of state, local, and possibly federal regulations in return for new forms of accountability in terms of outcomes for pupils. Approximately one-half of the states authorize the establishment of charter schools, and a federal Public Charter Schools (PCS) program provides start-up funds for such schools. The House has passed (H.R. 2616), and the Senate is considering (S. 1380) legislation to modify and expand the PCS program. This report provides background information on charter schools and their characteristics, plus discussion and analysis of current legislation regarding the PCS program. Issues have also arisen regarding the participation of charter schools in other federal aid programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Support of School Choice: Background and Options

Federal Support of School Choice: Background and Options

Date: April 30, 1998
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C & Stedman, James B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Date: June 11, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Tests: Administration Initiative

National Tests: Administration Initiative

Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of State Charter School Laws

Overview of State Charter School Laws

Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Jones, Kimberly D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reading Instruction: New Federal Initiatives

Reading Instruction: New Federal Initiatives

Date: June 29, 1998
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Information Technology and Elementary and Secondary Education: Current Status and Federal Support

Information Technology and Elementary and Secondary Education: Current Status and Federal Support

Date: June 9, 2000
Creator: Osorio-O'Dea, Patricia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Class Size Reduction Program: Background and Status

Class Size Reduction Program: Background and Status

Date: July 6, 2000
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: This report provides an overview of the structure and status of the CSR program, the issues raised about the program, early reports on its implementation, and relevant legislative action by the 106th Congress. It also considers emerging results from the California class size reduction effort, the state effort most closely watched by proponents and opponents of the federal CSR program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress

Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress

Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: The quality and quantity of public elementary and secondary school teachers are of increasing concern to the 106th Congress. Although states and localities are responsible for most aspects of teacher preparation, recruitment, and employment, the federal government supports a wide array of programs for teachers. Several of these programs are being considered for amendment and extension by the 106th Congress including the Eisenhower Professional Development program and the Class Size Reduction program. The 106th Congress has before it a wide array of legislative proposals to address teacher issues. Action has occurred on several proposals. This report tracks such action and will be updated as it occurs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Head Start: Background and Funding

Head Start: Background and Funding

Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Description: This report examines the history of federal funding for Head Start, which has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies

The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies

Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-104) codified the long standing policy commitment to ensure universal service in the provision of telecommunications services. The 1996 Act also expanded the concept to include, among other principles, that elementary schools and classrooms, and libraries should have access to telecommunications services for educational purposes at discounted rates. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was tasked with implementing the universal provisions of the Act and on May 7, 1997, adopted its order detailing its guidelines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Boren, Susan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: December 19, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Technology Challenge Programs in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Technology Challenge Programs in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Date: January 3, 2001
Creator: Osorio-O'Dea, Patricia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
E-Rate for Schools: Background on Telecommunications Discounts Through the Universal Service Fund

E-Rate for Schools: Background on Telecommunications Discounts Through the Universal Service Fund

Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Stedman, James B & Osorio-O'Dea, Patricia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department