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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: September 10, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: May 20, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect school aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent Supreme Court decisions, with particular attention to Zelman. It also summarizes the pending case of Davey v. Locke and other recent and ongoing state and lower federal court cases concerning vouchers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Date: June 11, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Educational Testing: Implementation of ESEA Title I-A Requirements Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Educational Testing: Implementation of ESEA Title I-A Requirements Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This report provides background information on state pupil assessment programs and policies, a description of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A assessment requirements as expanded by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), a review of the implementation status of these requirements, and an analysis of related issues which may be addressed by the 108th Congress.
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Elementary and Secondary Education: Accountability and Flexibility in Federal Aid Proposals

Elementary and Secondary Education: Accountability and Flexibility in Federal Aid Proposals

Date: September 6, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: The 107th Congress is considering proposals to amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Much of the debate over these proposals has been focused on issues related to state and local accountability for, and flexibility in the use of, federal aid funds. Current federal elementary and secondary education assistance programs have a broad range of accountability requirements, including: targeting of resources on specific “high need” pupil groups, localities, or schools; limitations on the authorized uses of funds; fiscal accountability requirements, such as maintenance of effort; procedural requirements, such as parental participation or equitable treatment of pupils attending non-public schools; staff qualifications; reporting; outcome; and evaluation requirements.
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Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress

Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress

Date: January 24, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C & Stedman, James B
Description: This issue brief provides an overview of legislation to reauthorize the ESEA, ERDDIA, and NESA. Most of it will focus on the ESEA, since it is much larger in scale. We include a summary review of relevant legislation acted upon during the 106th Congress. This issue brief will be updated regularly to reflect current legislative activity. Other issue briefs and reports, listed at the end of this brief, provide more detailed information on individual programs or types of proposals and analyses of the issues being debated with respect to them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress

Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress

Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: The quality and quantity of public elementary and secondary school teachers are of increasing concern to the 106th Congress. Although states and localities are responsible for most aspects of teacher preparation, recruitment, and employment, the federal government supports a wide array of programs for teachers. Several of these programs are being considered for amendment and extension by the 106th Congress including the Eisenhower Professional Development program and the Class Size Reduction program. The 106th Congress has before it a wide array of legislative proposals to address teacher issues. Action has occurred on several proposals. This report tracks such action and will be updated as it occurs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
ESEA Reauthorization Proposals: Comparison of Major Features of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 1

ESEA Reauthorization Proposals: Comparison of Major Features of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 1

Date: July 6, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: The authorizations of appropriations for most programs of federal aid to elementary and secondary (grades K-12) education, under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), expired at the end of FY2000. While the 106th Congress extensively considered several bills which would have reauthorized and amended most of these programs, only legislation extending the Impact Aid (ESEA Title VIII) and Even Start Family Literacy (ESEA Title I, Part B) programs was enacted. Selected other programs, such as the Class Size Reduction program, have been initiated and continued solely through annual appropriations legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act: A Legal Overview

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act: A Legal Overview

Date: November 30, 2005
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department