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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Early Childhood Education: Federal Policy Issues

Early Childhood Education: Federal Policy Issues

Date: February 20, 2004
Creator: McCallion, Gail
Description: This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated, are discussed.
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Education: Federal Concerns

Education: Federal Concerns

Date: April 12, 1988
Creator: Evans, Angela
Description: This issue brief analyzes six areas in which Federal policies to address the educational system's current needs are being fashioned (1) services for disadvantaged youth, (2) the financing of post-secondary education, ( 3 ) the level of Federal appropriations for education, ( 4 ) responses to adult illiteracy, (5) international economic competitiveness, and (6) the role of vocational education.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Date: April 19, 2002
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This report provides an overview of aspects of ESEA Title I-A which were substantially amended by the NCLBA; elements of the program which are important but which were not substantially revised by the NCLBA (such as parental involvement requirements) are not discussed in this report. Other current and forthcoming reports will provide more detailed discussions and analyses of selected major aspects of the program, including pupil assessments,2 accountability, and allocation formulas. This report will be updated regularly, to reflect significant actions regarding funding and implementation of the NCLBA provisions.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to local educational agencies (LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I-A grants provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving and other pupils attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families in pre-kindergarten through grade 12. Title I-A is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program, with services provided to (a) over 90% of all LEAs; (b) approximately 45,000 (58% of all) public schools; and (c) approximately 11 million (22% of all) pupils, including approximately 167,000 pupils attending private schools. Four-fifths of all pupils served are in pre-kindergarten through grade 6, while only 5% of pupils served are in grades 10-12.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title I-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title I-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Riddle, Wayne
Description: This report provides an overview of aspects of Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A which were substantially amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA); elements of the program which are important but which were not substantially revised by the NCLBA (such as parental involvement requirements) are not discussed in this report.
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Education Funding Issues for FY89

Education Funding Issues for FY89

Date: April 15, 1988
Creator: Evans, Angela
Description: Congress considers annually the funding level for all programs administered by U.S. Department of Education (ED). The debate in this process has focused on how much the Federal Government should spend on education , and what, if any, program changes might be necessary to achieve these levels.
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Education in America: Reports on Its Condition, Recommendations for Change

Education in America: Reports on Its Condition, Recommendations for Change

Date: July 17, 1985
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: The quality of education in our schools, particularly our high schools, and appropriate Federal actions to improve educational quality have become a major political issue. A number of reports on education with recommendations for change have been issued, among them A Nation At Risk by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. These reports are critical of how our Schools are functioning and call for improvement in areas such as teaching, curriculum, and standards for student performance and behavior. Some issues raised by these reports are whether these changes are needed, how these changes might be implemented, and what might be the roles of different- levels of government in this process.
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Education Issues in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session

Education Issues in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session

Date: January 26, 1998
Creator: Irwin, Paul M
Description: Several education issues are being considered by the 105th Congress. Some of the congressional action results from expiring legislation, such as the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA). Other action may occur because of debate over the appropriate federal role in education, including federal support for school reform or national testing. This report provides a brief summary of education issues anticipated for the 2nd Session, as well as a synopsis of education activity during the 1st Session.
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Education of Limited English Proficient and Recent Immigrant Students: Provisions in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Education of Limited English Proficient and Recent Immigrant Students: Provisions in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Date: April 26, 2004
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J
Description: The Language Acquisition State Grant Program under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) contains provisions intended to address the specific educational needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and students who have recently immigrated to the United States.1 Title III represents a major overhaul of federal programs for LEP students formerly provided under ESEA, Title VII, Parts A and C.
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Education of the Handicapped

Education of the Handicapped

Date: November 14, 1983
Creator: Fraas, Charlotte Jones
Description: Federal involvement in the education of the handicapped increased significantly with the enactment of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) in the 94th Congress. This legislation amended the provisions for State assistance under Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA, P.L. 91-230, title VI, as amended) to require that a "free appropriate public education" be available for all handicapped children age 3 through 21 by September 1980. P.L. 94-142 authorized increased Federal financial assistance along with new requirements for participating State agencies and local school districts. Current issues relating to Federal policy for the education of the handicapped include concerns about costs and responsibilities in educating the handicapped, about the level of Federal financial support, about the characteristics of handicapped children actually identified and served, about the implementation of P.L. 94-142 requirements by State and local school districts, and about Administration proposals to revise Part B regulations.
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Education Proposals in Trade Competitiveness Legislation

Education Proposals in Trade Competitiveness Legislation

Date: May 4, 1988
Creator: Irwin, Paul M & Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Improvement on America's competitive position in international trade is one of the major issues confronting the 100th Congress. Most legislative proposals have included provisions for increasing the funding levels for Federal education programs, expanding current programs, or authorizing new programs. The primary goal is to improve the productivity of the Nation's workers by raising the skill level of the workforce. Discussions about education's role i n addressing the competitiveness issue have included the contribution of education to productivity growth, comparisons of the educational achievement of American school children with that of their peers in other nations , the educational needs of illiterate adults , and the role of technology in education.
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Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action

Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action

Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R; Apling, Richard N; Irwin, Paul M; Smole, David P; Mercer, Charmaine & Kuenzi, Jeffrey J
Description: This report provides an overview of the waivers that have been granted by the Department of Education in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes; three public laws that have been enacted, specifically to provide financial relief to postsecondary students and institutions of higher education; and education-related hurricane relief provisions included in FY2006 defense appropriations. For K-12 education, the latter provides several waivers of existing requirements and appropriates $1.4 billion, primarily to restart school operations in affected areas and to provide emergency impact aid grants to schools serving displaced students. For higher education, P.L. 109-148 provides waivers of existing requirements and makes available $200 million to provide assistance under various HEA programs.
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Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education

Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Lyke, Bob & Stedman, James B
Description: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts.
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Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education

Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education

Date: August 23, 2001
Creator: Lyke, Bob & Stedman, James B
Description: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts.
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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: December 19, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: July 16, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: September 10, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: May 20, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect school aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent Supreme Court decisions, with particular attention to Zelman. It also summarizes the pending case of Davey v. Locke and other recent and ongoing state and lower federal court cases concerning vouchers.
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Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Date: June 11, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers.
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