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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Early Childhood Education: Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated, are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5864/
Federal Support of School Choice: Background and Options
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Merit Pay for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Background Discussion and Analysis of Issues
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Teacher Recruitment and Retention: Federal, State, and Local Programs
The recruitment and retention of a high-quality teaching force is critical to the future success of our nation's school system. To address this issue, a wide range of programs have been put into place at the federal, state, and local levels in recent years. This report is to review the range of these efforts nationwide and provide a context for the issues that may yet arise during HEA reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847775/
Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
This report addresses the controversial issues surrounding the E-rate program's implementation and subsequent legislative measures introduced to address these issues. An additional issue, concern that minors may gain access to "inappropriate" material through the Internet has also had an impact on the E-rate program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855887/
Common Core State Standards: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions related to the Common Core State Standards and federal involvement with the standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463153/
Education of the Handicapped
Federal involvement in the education of the handicapped increased significantly with the enactment of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) in the 94th Congress. This legislation amended the provisions for State assistance under Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA, P.L. 91-230, title VI, as amended) to require that a "free appropriate public education" be available for all handicapped children age 3 through 21 by September 1980. P.L. 94-142 authorized increased Federal financial assistance along with new requirements for participating State agencies and local school districts. Current issues relating to Federal policy for the education of the handicapped include concerns about costs and responsibilities in educating the handicapped, about the level of Federal financial support, about the characteristics of handicapped children actually identified and served, about the implementation of P.L. 94-142 requirements by State and local school districts, and about Administration proposals to revise Part B regulations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8810/
Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues
This paper explores selected questions involving the busing of elementary and secondary school students for desegregation. On each of the selected questions a general analysis of the issue involved is presented, followed by two subsections entitled A Critic's Position and An Advocate's Position. In these subsections, an attempt is made to show how a critic of busing for desegregation and an advocate of such busing might fashion arguments on this issue in opposition to, or in support of, busing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8161/
Busing for School Desegregation
The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8601/
School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
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Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4421/
Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress
The quality and quantity of public elementary and secondary school teachers are of increasing concern to the 106th Congress. Although states and localities are responsible for most aspects of teacher preparation, recruitment, and employment, the federal government supports a wide array of programs for teachers. Several of these programs are being considered for amendment and extension by the 106th Congress including the Eisenhower Professional Development program and the Class Size Reduction program. The 106th Congress has before it a wide array of legislative proposals to address teacher issues. Action has occurred on several proposals. This report tracks such action and will be updated as it occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1163/
Education Issues in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session
Several education issues are being considered by the 105th Congress. Some of the congressional action results from expiring legislation, such as the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA). Other action may occur because of debate over the appropriate federal role in education, including federal support for school reform or national testing. This report provides a brief summary of education issues anticipated for the 2nd Session, as well as a synopsis of education activity during the 1st Session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs633/
School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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Performance-Based Pay for Teachers
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Standardized Educational Test Scores
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Assessment in Elementary and Secondary Education: A Primer
This report provides a framework for understanding various types of assessments that are administered in elementary and secondary schools. It broadly discusses various purposes of educational assessment and describe comprehensive assessment systems. The report also provides a description and analysis of technical considerations in assessments, including validity, reliability, and fairness, and provide a discussion of how to use these technical considerations to draw appropriate conclusions based on assessment results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700550/
Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA
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Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
This report examines various legislative issues regarding Head Start, which is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3895/
Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
This report examines various legislative issues regarding Head Start, which is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3894/
The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000: Forest Service Payments to Counties
This report describes the issues that Congress has debated relating to The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-393), which may again arise when the program expires in 2011, and explains the changes enacted for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795595/
K-12 Education: Highlights of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-110)
This report outlines major highlights of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA). Only the most basic provisions of this act are briefly described in this report; other CRS reports provide more specific and substantial analyses of the major provisions of the NCLBA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824710/
Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title I-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides an overview of aspects of Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A which were substantially amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA); elements of the program which are important but which were not substantially revised by the NCLBA (such as parental involvement requirements) are not discussed in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824617/
Charter School Programs Authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA Title V-B): A Primer
This report provides an overview of each of the three charter school programs included in Title V-B of the Elementary and Secondary Education ActE (SEA). It also discusses national activities that are authorized under Title V-B-1. It concludes with a discussion of substantive changes that have been made to these programs through annual appropriations acts since FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822365/
Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
This report provides a list of books and Web addresses intended to help students locate financial aid. This list includes both general and comprehensive works, as well as ones targeted toward specific types of aid and circumstances (e.g., non-need-based scholarships, female and minority students, or students studying abroad). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847786/
K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
This report provides a brief overview of some of the most salient issues regarding the K-12 teaching force, describes the current federal role in this area, describes major federal programs, and tracks major legislative action by the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822466/
The No Child Left Behind Act: An Overview of Reauthorization Issues for the 110th Congress
This report discusses the federal aid for K-12 education program authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821469/
Supplemental Educational Services for Children from Low-Income Families Under ESEA Title I-A
This report discusses supplemental educational services in the general sense, which include educational activities provided outside of normal school hours that are designed to augment or enhance the educational services provided during regular periods of instruction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7578/
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): A Legal Overview
This report discusses the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 that guarantees parental access to student education records, while limiting the disclosure of those records to third parties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272128/
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): A Legal Overview
This report gives a legal overview of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974, which guarantees parental access to student education records, while limiting the disclosure of those records to third parties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462775/
Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government
This report describes Internet resources on major internship, fellowship, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491593/
Reauthorizing the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000
This report discusses the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (SRS; P.L. 106-393) enacted by Congress as a temporary, optional program of payments based on historic rather than current revenues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501965/
Bilingual Education: An Overview
The U.S. Department of Education(ED) administers the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), the federal education program specifically intended for limited English proficient (LEP) children. The Congress considered several proposals to reauthorize the BEA in the 106th Congress. The 107th Congress has again been considering legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), including the BEA. H.R. 1, the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” was passed by the House on May 23, 2001. S. 1, the “Better Education for Students and Teachers Act” was reported in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, and is currently under consideration, as amended by SA358, in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1882/
The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8144/
Education in America: Reports on Its Condition, Recommendations for Change
The quality of education in our schools, particularly our high schools, and appropriate Federal actions to improve educational quality have become a major political issue. A number of reports on education with recommendations for change have been issued, among them A Nation At Risk by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. These reports are critical of how our Schools are functioning and call for improvement in areas such as teaching, curriculum, and standards for student performance and behavior. Some issues raised by these reports are whether these changes are needed, how these changes might be implemented, and what might be the roles of different- levels of government in this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9059/
ESEA Reauthorization Proposals: Comparison of Major Features of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 1
The authorizations of appropriations for most programs of federal aid to elementary and secondary (grades K-12) education, under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), expired at the end of FY2000. While the 106th Congress extensively considered several bills which would have reauthorized and amended most of these programs, only legislation extending the Impact Aid (ESEA Title VIII) and Even Start Family Literacy (ESEA Title I, Part B) programs was enacted. Selected other programs, such as the Class Size Reduction program, have been initiated and continued solely through annual appropriations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1431/
Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government
This report describes Internet resources on major internship, fellowship, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83854/
Educational Testing: Implementation of ESEA Title I-A Requirements Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides background information on state pupil assessment programs and policies, a description of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A assessment requirements as expanded by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), a review of the implementation status of these requirements, and an analysis of related issues which may be addressed by the 108th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7369/
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