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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26057/
The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8144/
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1162/
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1645/
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2608/
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2609/
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4413/
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect school aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent Supreme Court decisions, with particular attention to Zelman. It also summarizes the pending case of Davey v. Locke and other recent and ongoing state and lower federal court cases concerning vouchers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4414/
Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards
The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs632/
Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8801/
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs109/
Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8146/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs424/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1410/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6209/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Issues Regarding "Full Funding" of Part B Grants to States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1604/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6535/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2551/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Medicaid
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7575/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8437/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9670/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9679/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2207/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by S. 1248, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7102/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2205/
Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government
This report describes Internet resources on major internship, fellowship, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491593/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2206/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10206/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3858/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3859/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1096/
Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Related Issues
This report discusses what RCTs are and identifies a number of issues regarding RCTs that might arise when Congress considers making program evaluation policy. For example, in the 109th Congress, Section 3 of S. 1934 (as introduced) would establish a priority for RCTs when evaluating offender reentry demonstration projects; Section 114 of S. 667 (Senate Finance Committee-reported bill) would require RCTs for demonstration projects for low-income families; and Section 5 of S. 1129 (as introduced) would call for RCTs for projects and policies of multilateral development banks. Issues regarding RCTs could also arise when actors in the policy process present specific program evaluations to Congress (e.g., in the President’s budget proposals) to influence Congress’s views and decision making. For many reasons, evaluations often merit scrutiny and care in interpretation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9145/
Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
This report will provide a brief overview of the prohibition on the use of funds by institutions of higher education, including proposals considered by the House and Senate before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) was enacted. It will also analyze the constitutionality of the distribution of federal money to religious schools in the context of common questions raised by these provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700829/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and "DREAM Act" Legislation
In recent years, multiple bills have been introduced in Congress to provide relief to unauthorized alien students. In most cases, these bills have proposed to repeal the 1996 provision and enable certain unauthorized alien students to adjust to legal permanent resident (LPR) status in the United States. These bills have often been entitled the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act, or the DREAM Act. This report discusses the background and debate surrounding "Dream Act" legislation in the 110th and 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491063/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and "DREAM Act" Legislation
Supporters of comprehensive immigration reform have urged the President and Congress to pursue reform legislation. While legislative action on comprehensive reform does not appear likely during the remainder of the 111th Congress, there may be an effort to enact a measure, commonly referred to as the "DREAM Act," to enable certain unauthorized alien students to legalize their status. This report discusses the DREAM act and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29690/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and "DREAM Act" Legislation
Supporters of comprehensive immigration reform have urged the President and Congress to pursue reform legislation. While legislative action on comprehensive reform does not appear likely during the remainder of the 111th Congress, there may be an effort to enact a measure, commonly referred to as the "DREAM Act," to enable certain unauthorized alien students to legalize their status. This report discusses the DREAM act and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31423/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and “DREAM Act” Legislation
This report discusses the "DREAM Act", a measure to enable certain unauthorized alien students to legalize their status, as well as related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99101/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and "DREAM Act" Legislation
The 109th and 110th Congresses considered, but did not enact, comprehensive immigration reform legislation that included large-scale legalization programs for unauthorized aliens. In the aftermath of these unsuccessful efforts, some interested parties have urged the President and Congress to pursue more limited legislation to address the status of unauthorized alien students. Such legislation is commonly referred to as the "DREAM Act." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86657/
Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and “DREAM Act” Legislation
This report looks at the background and history of recent "DREAM Act"s, which address the status of unauthorized alien students. It pays special attention to the June 15, 2012 announcement that come individuals who were brought into the U.S. as children and meet other requirements would be eligible for deferred action for two years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94097/
Head Start: Background and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1108/
Assessment in Elementary and Secondary Education: A Primer
This report provides a framework for understanding various types of assessments that are administered in elementary and secondary schools. It broadly discusses various purposes of educational assessment and describe comprehensive assessment systems. The report also provides a description and analysis of technical considerations in assessments, including validity, reliability, and fairness, and provide a discussion of how to use these technical considerations to draw appropriate conclusions based on assessment results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700550/
Article Packet: Background Information on Seatbelts in School Buses
This notice from the Department of Transportation, denies a petition for rule-making filed by Physicians for Automotive Safety (PAS), asking this agency to mandate the installation of seat belts on all school buses. NHTSA believes that the currently mandated occupant protections in school buses provide an adequate level of safety protection, and that seat belts would not raise the level of protection for the occupants unless States and local jurisdictions were willing to take steps to ensure that the seat belts were actually used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9052/
School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8602/
Sex Discrimination in Education: Title IX
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8413/
Standardized Educational Test Scores
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9235/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2208/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2209/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3862/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3864/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3863/
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