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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies

Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P. & Gomez-Granger, Julissa
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis

Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis

Date: March 15, 2011
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Description: This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis

Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Description: This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Date: November 7, 2013
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report includes updated material that emphasizes the issues most prominently before the 113th Congress. It also discusses foundational information about major elements of campaign finance policy
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: July 10, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, Paige L.
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular in recent federal election cycles. These advertisements are often interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has determined that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech that cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as "express advocacy" or "magic words" can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Upcoming legislation would further investigate and elaborate upon this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: April 6, 2001
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Soft and Hard Money in Contemporary Elections: What Federal Law Does and Does Not Regulate

Soft and Hard Money in Contemporary Elections: What Federal Law Does and Does Not Regulate

Date: May 7, 2001
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform and Incentives to Voluntarily Limit Candidate Spending From Personal Funds: Constitutional Issues Raised by Public Subsidies and Variable Contribution Limits

Campaign Finance Reform and Incentives to Voluntarily Limit Candidate Spending From Personal Funds: Constitutional Issues Raised by Public Subsidies and Variable Contribution Limits

Date: March 22, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: The Supreme Court in Buckley v. Valeo ruled that spending limits, including the amount a candidate can spend on his or her own campaign from personal funds (also known as personal fund expenditure limits) are unconstitutional. The Court did, however, uphold a system of spending limits, on the condition that they are voluntarily accepted in exchange for some form of public financing. As a result of these Court rulings, the concept of various incentives toward voluntary compliance with a personal funds expenditure limit has been developed. This report discusses some constitutional issues raised by two such incentives: public subsidies and variable contribution limits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department