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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report addresses various questions regarding Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines (DREs). Questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs and possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report discusses the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG), which are a set of technical standards for voting systems that use computers to assist in recording or counting votes. Systems covered include most used in the United States—not only DREs (direct recording electronic systems) such as touchscreen voting machines, but also optical scan and punch card systems. Hand-counted paper-ballot and lever-machine systems, which do not involve computers, are not covered. However, they are used by a small and decreasing number of election jurisdictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Special Elections and Membership Changes in the 103d Congress, First Session

Special Elections and Membership Changes in the 103d Congress, First Session

Date: April 7, 1994
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report provides information on membership changes in the first session of the 103d Congress through special elections for vacancies in the House of Representatives and appointments and special elections for vacancies in the Senate .
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electoral College Reform: 111th Congress Proposals and Other Current Developments

Electoral College Reform: 111th Congress Proposals and Other Current Developments

Date: November 4, 2009
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report examines and analyzes alternative proposals for change to the electoral college system, presents pro and con arguments, and identifies and analyzes 111th Congress proposals and contemporary alternative reform developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: September 21, 2005
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M
Description: This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region.
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Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances

Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances

Date: August 9, 2005
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric & Richardson, Sula P
Description: This report is one of several CRS products related to congressional continuity and contingency planning.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections

Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections

Date: February 14, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
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Iraq: Elections and New Government

Iraq: Elections and New Government

Date: June 24, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
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Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections

Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections

Date: March 11, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
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Iraq: Elections and New Government

Iraq: Elections and New Government

Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections and New Government

Iraq: Elections and New Government

Date: April 7, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election Reform and Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Analysis of Security Issues

Election Reform and Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Analysis of Security Issues

Date: November 4, 2003
Creator: Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several questions about voting-system security. To address these questions, this report begins with a description of the historical and policy context of the controversy. That is followed by an analysis of the issues in the broader context of computer security. The next section discusses several proposals that have been made for addressing those issues, and the last section discusses options for action that might be considered by policymakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
India's 2004 National Elections

India's 2004 National Elections

Date: July 12, 2004
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Executive Branch Power to Postpone Elections

Executive Branch Power to Postpone Elections

Date: July 14, 2004
Creator: Thomas, Kenneth R
Description: Because of the continuing threat of terrorism, concerns have been raised about the potential for terrorist events to occur close to or during the voting process for the November 2004 elections. For instance, the question has been raised as to whether a sufficiently calamitous event could result in the postponement of the election, and what mechanisms are in place to deal with such an event. This report focuses on who has the constitutional authority to postpone elections, to whom such power could be delegated, and what legal limitations exist to such a postponement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan:  Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: April 8, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Presidential elections in Afghanistan were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai was declared the winner on November 3, 2004 with about 55% of the vote. Parliamentary, provincial, and district elections were to be held in April-May 2005, but parliamentary and provincial elections are now to be held September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan:  Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai won with about 55% of the vote. In a climate of escalating insurgent violence in Afghanistan, parliamentary and provincial elections are to be held on September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan:  Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: March 10, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Presidential elections in Afghanistan were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai was declared the winner on November 3, 2004 with about 55% of the vote, and he subsequently named a cabinet incorporating most major factions but stressing qualifications. Parliamentary, provincial, and district elections were to be held in April-May 2005, but they are now almost certain to be postponed until at least September 2005. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai won with about 55% of the vote. In a climate of escalating insurgent violence in Afghanistan, parliamentary and provincial elections are to be held on September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
July 1992 Japanese Elections

July 1992 Japanese Elections

Date: June 5, 1992
Creator: Young, Jeffrey D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

Date: October 5, 2012
Creator: Rollins, John
Description: This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Procedures for Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives

Procedures for Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives

Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Under the U.S. Constitution, each House of Congress has the express authority to be the judge of the "elections and returns" of its own Members. Although initial challenges and recounts for the House are conducted at the state level, under the state's authority to administer federal elections, continuing contests may be presented to the House, which, as the final arbiter, may make a conclusive determination of a claim to the seat. This report describes these procedures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, As Amended: Its History and Current Issues

The Voting Rights Act of 1965, As Amended: Its History and Current Issues

Date: June 12, 2008
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Description: Several bills have been introduced in the 110th Congress concerning the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) that would rename the short title of the act, and address its bilingual provisions and issues of deceptive practices and voter intimidation during elections. This report discusses this issue at length and also addresses allegations of voting irregularities and of violations of the VRA during the presidential election of 2000.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department