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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Proposals to Reform Our Presidential Electoral System: A Survey of the Historical Background and Development of the Electoral College, and a Compilation of Proposals to Reform It, With Pro and Con Analyses
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The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions
As Congress considers proposals relating to DREs, salient issues might include the lack of information about DRE security, especially in relation to other systems and other components of election integrity; potential conflicts with HAVA requirements that might be associated with the proposals; how those proposals might impact voter confidence; and what impacts they might have on future innovation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8245/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4390/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1628/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1159/
Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation
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Internet Voting
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Internet Voting
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Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation
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Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 Election: Fact Sheet
Report examining what actions the federal government might take to respond to Hurricane Sandy's impact on the November 6, 2012, election. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227822/
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections in Afghanistan were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai was declared the winner on November 3, 2004 with about 55% of the vote. Parliamentary, provincial, and district elections were to be held in April-May 2005, but parliamentary and provincial elections are now to be held September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6722/
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai won with about 55% of the vote. In a climate of escalating insurgent violence in Afghanistan, parliamentary and provincial elections are to be held on September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6724/
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections in Afghanistan were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai was declared the winner on November 3, 2004 with about 55% of the vote, and he subsequently named a cabinet incorporating most major factions but stressing qualifications. Parliamentary, provincial, and district elections were to be held in April-May 2005, but they are now almost certain to be postponed until at least September 2005. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6723/
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai won with about 55% of the vote. In a climate of escalating insurgent violence in Afghanistan, parliamentary and provincial elections are to be held on September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7229/
2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options
This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122266/
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, As Amended: Its History and Current Issues
Several bills have been introduced in the 110th Congress concerning the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) that would rename the short title of the act, and address its bilingual provisions and issues of deceptive practices and voter intimidation during elections. This report discusses this issue at length and also addresses allegations of voting irregularities and of violations of the VRA during the presidential election of 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26107/
Azerbaijan's October 2008 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications
This report discusses the win by incumbent Ilkham Aliyev in Azerbaijan's October 15, 2008, presidential election. It describes the campaign and results, and examines implications for Azerbaijani and U.S. interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10814/
Procedures for Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives
Under the U.S. Constitution, each House of Congress has the express authority to be the judge of the "elections and returns" of its own Members. Although initial challenges and recounts for the House are conducted at the state level, under the state's authority to administer federal elections, continuing contests may be presented to the House, which, as the final arbiter, may make a conclusive determination of a claim to the seat. This report describes these procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29688/
Out-of-State Money in the Congressional Elections of 1992, 1994, and 1996: Trends and Policy Issues
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
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Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances
This report is one of several CRS products related to congressional continuity and contingency planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9109/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10229/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10227/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but the government has been unable to reduce sectarian violence, and there are growing signs of fragmentation within it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10228/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7481/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
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Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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Iraq: Elections and New Government
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Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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Iraq: Elections and New Government
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July 1992 Japanese Elections
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Executive Branch Power to Postpone Elections
Because of the continuing threat of terrorism, concerns have been raised about the potential for terrorist events to occur close to or during the voting process for the November 2004 elections. For instance, the question has been raised as to whether a sufficiently calamitous event could result in the postponement of the election, and what mechanisms are in place to deal with such an event. This report focuses on who has the constitutional authority to postpone elections, to whom such power could be delegated, and what legal limitations exist to such a postponement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5856/
India's 2004 National Elections
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Election Reform and Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Analysis of Security Issues
This report discusses several questions about voting-system security. To address these questions, this report begins with a description of the historical and policy context of the controversy. That is followed by an analysis of the issues in the broader context of computer security. The next section discusses several proposals that have been made for addressing those issues, and the last section discusses options for action that might be considered by policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4396/
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)
This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2010. A “lame duck” session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94073/
Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections
This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84016/
Campaign Finance in the 2000 Federal Elections: Overview and Estimates of the Flow of Money
Federal election law regulates money in federal elections through a ban on union and corporate treasury money, limits on contributions, and uniform, periodic disclosure of receipts and expenditures. Money raised and spent under these laws to directly influence federal elections is commonly known as hard money. Money that is largely outside the restrictions and prohibitions of the federal regulatory framework–but raised and spent in a manner suggesting possible intent to affect federal elections–is commonly known as soft money. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1633/
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1151/
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs954/
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs425/
Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation
This report provides an introduction to the laws governing the financing of Federal election campaigns and presents data on campaign finance activity in the 1980’s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8170/
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues
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Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Legislation in the 108th Congress
Several bills have been introduced in the 108th Congress to address issues that have been raised about the security of direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines. Touchscreen and other DREs using computer-style displays are arguably the most versatile and voter-friendly of any current voting system. The popularity of DREs, particularly the touchscreen variety, has grown in recent years. In addition, the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA, P.L. 107 — 252), while not requiring or prohibiting the use of any specific kind of voting system, does promote the use of DREs through some of its provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8200/
Voter Eligibility Verification Pilot Program
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Postponement and Rescheduling of Elections to Federal Office
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Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress
Report exploring super Political Action Committees, what they are, how they developed, how much they raised and spent during the 2010 election cycle, and a preliminary analysis of the 2012 cycle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227731/
Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies
This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31349/