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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Date: September 28, 2004
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Date: September 8, 2003
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Date: October 22, 2012
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report provides information about the electoral college, its origins, who makes up the college today, the 2012 presidental election, and calls for the reform of the electoral college.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Date: November 30, 2012
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: Report that describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: July 10, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as “express advocacy” or “magic words” can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Unlike express advocacy communications, therefore, issue ads may be paid for with funds unregulated by federal law, i.e., soft money
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census

Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census

Date: October 15, 1982
Creator: Gorman, Joseph B
Description: This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress

The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress

Date: June 30, 2005
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department