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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 Election: Fact Sheet

Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 Election: Fact Sheet

Date: November 8, 2012
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: Report examining what actions the federal government might take to respond to Hurricane Sandy's impact on the November 6, 2012, election.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J. & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: The aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created staggering problems and challenging conditions for the people of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, as well as for the state and local governments there. Many problems were immediately apparent, whereas others that involved ongoing government functions, such as elections, were less obvious at first. This report discusses the challenge of running elections in the many affected communities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: March 7, 2007
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: Most voting systems used in U.S. elections rely on computers in some way. The most computerized is the direct recording electronic voting machine, or DRE. In this system, votes are recorded directly onto computer memory devices. This report discusses questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs. Possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report addresses various questions regarding Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines (DREs). Questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs and possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report discusses the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG), which are a set of technical standards for voting systems that use computers to assist in recording or counting votes. Systems covered include most used in the United States—not only DREs (direct recording electronic systems) such as touchscreen voting machines, but also optical scan and punch card systems. Hand-counted paper-ballot and lever-machine systems, which do not involve computers, are not covered. However, they are used by a small and decreasing number of election jurisdictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Special Elections and Membership Changes in the 103d Congress, First Session

Special Elections and Membership Changes in the 103d Congress, First Session

Date: April 7, 1994
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report provides information on membership changes in the first session of the 103d Congress through special elections for vacancies in the House of Representatives and appointments and special elections for vacancies in the Senate .
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electoral College Reform: 111th Congress Proposals and Other Current Developments

Electoral College Reform: 111th Congress Proposals and Other Current Developments

Date: November 4, 2009
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report examines and analyzes alternative proposals for change to the electoral college system, presents pro and con arguments, and identifies and analyzes 111th Congress proposals and contemporary alternative reform developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

Date: October 5, 2012
Creator: Rollins, John
Description: This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Procedures for Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives

Procedures for Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives

Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Under the U.S. Constitution, each House of Congress has the express authority to be the judge of the "elections and returns" of its own Members. Although initial challenges and recounts for the House are conducted at the state level, under the state's authority to administer federal elections, continuing contests may be presented to the House, which, as the final arbiter, may make a conclusive determination of a claim to the seat. This report describes these procedures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections in 2005 for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence and attracted progressively increasing Sunni participation. However, escalating sectarian violence and factional infighting have delayed formation of a new government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: March 30, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections in 2005 for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence and attracted progressively increasing Sunni participation. However, escalating sectarian violence and factional infighting have delayed formation of a new government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?

House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?

Date: January 22, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Sula P. & Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report discusses how vacancies in Congress are filled when a Senator or Representative dies, resigns, declines to serve, or is expelled or excluded from either house. The Constitution requires that vacancies in both houses be filled by special election, but in the case of the Senate, it empowers state legislatures to provide for temporary appointments by the state governor until special elections can be scheduled.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Bids for President

Independent Bids for President

Date: January 6, 2016
Creator: unknown
Description: This report briefly discusses legal and practical obstacles for candidates pursuing an independent run for the presidency after participating in the nomination process of a major political party--including competing in state primaries and caucuses for delegates to the party's national nominating convention.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress

Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: April 4, 2013
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam
Description: This report provides context for understanding what super PACs might mean for federal campaign finance policy and federal elections using a question-and-answer format with attention to super PAC activities in 2010 and 2012, and what those findings might mean looking ahead.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)

Date: September 19, 2014
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2012. A "lame duck" session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Date: February 25, 2015
Creator: Leland, Anne
Description: This report provides the results of recent elections in Latin America and the Caribbean. Information in this report was gathered from numerous sources, including the U.S. State Department, Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) World Fact Book, International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) Election Guide, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), and other news sources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections

Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections

Date: January 9, 2012
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.; Garrett, R. Sam & Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)

Date: August 30, 2011
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2010. A “lame duck” session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress

Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: September 12, 2012
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam
Description: Report exploring super Political Action Committees, what they are, how they developed, how much they raised and spent during the 2010 election cycle, and a preliminary analysis of the 2012 cycle.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues

Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the historical context of the VVSG, followed by a summary of the guidelines and a discussion of each of the issues identified above. However, there are many specific issues, such as whether wireless communications should be permitted, that are not covered here. The report also briefly summarizes relevant legislative proposals in the 109th Congress
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Date: March 1, 2016
Creator: DeBruyne, Nese F.
Description: This report provides the results of recent elections in Latin America and the Caribbean. It includes three tables organized by region, containing the date of each country's independence, the name of the newly elected president or prime minister, and the projected date of the next election. Information in this report was gathered from numerous sources, including the U.S. State Department, Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) World Fact Book, International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) Election Guide, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), and other news sources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Garret, R. S.
Description: This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department