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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: September 25, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: January 21, 2004
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: September 2, 2004
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Election Laws: Overview of Statutes Regarding Emergency Election Postponement Within the State

State Election Laws: Overview of Statutes Regarding Emergency Election Postponement Within the State

Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election Projections: First Amendment Issues

Election Projections: First Amendment Issues

Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: Media projections may be based both on exit polls and on information acquired as to actual ballot counts. The First Amendment would generally preclude Congress from prohibiting the media from interviewing voters after they exit the polls. It apparently would also preclude Congress from prohibiting the media from reporting the results of those polls. Congress, could, however, ban voter solicitation within a certain distance from a polling place, and might be able to include exit polling within such a ban.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Political Organizations: Legislation in the 109th Congress

527 Political Organizations: Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E. & Lunder, Erika
Description: The 109th Congress is examining the role of groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) that are involved in federal elections but are not operating under the requirements and restrictions of federal election law. Although such groups only recently emerged into public awareness, in 2004, they were widely seen as major players in the presidential election, with more than $400 million spent seeking to influence the outcome. Strictly speaking, the term “527” refers to a section of the Internal Revenue Code, which was added in 1975 to provide tax-exempt status to federal, state, and local political organizations, as defined in that statute. The controversy over these 527 groups arises from two factors: the different definitions used in federal election law and tax law as to what constitutes election-related activity and, further, the lack of certainty as to what election law itself regulates or may permissibly regulate. This report discusses these groups in detail, as well as related legislation.
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The Democratic Party of Japan: Its Foreign Policy Position and Implications for U.S. Interests

The Democratic Party of Japan: Its Foreign Policy Position and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 12, 2009
Creator: Konishi, Weston S.
Description: This report analyzes the Democratic Party of Japan's (DPJ) policy platform and reviews the implications for U.S. strategic and economic interests in the event that the party takes control of the Japanese government after the August 30 parliamentary elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Historic 2009 Elections: Implications for U.S. Interests

Japan's Historic 2009 Elections: Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: September 8, 2009
Creator: Konishi, Weston S.
Description: This report analyzes the Democratic Party of Japan's (DPJ) policy platform and reviews the implications for U.S. strategic and economic interests now that the party and its coalition allies are set to take control of the Japanese government in the wake of the August 30 parliamentary elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: Members of the military and U.S. citizens who live abroad are eligible to register and vote absentee in federal elections under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) of 1986. The law was enacted to improve absentee registration and voting for this group of voters and to consolidate existing laws. This report summarizes the UOCAVA and details modifications and improvements to the UOCAVA since its inception, as well as related pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Date: June 20, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report provides a summary of the issues presented by 12 groups of appellants in their jurisdictional statements in 2003. Shortly after the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155 (H.R. 2356, 107th Cong.) was enacted in March 2002 (also known as the McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform legislation), Senator Mitch McConnell and others filed suit in U.S. District Court for D.C. against the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) arguing that provisions of the law are unconstitutional. Ultimately, eleven suits challenging BCRA were brought by more than 80 plaintiffs and consolidated into one lead case, McConnell v. FEC. On May 2, 2003, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its decision in McConnell v. FEC, No. 02-CV-0582 striking down some key provisions of the law as unconstitutional, but on May 19, it issued a stay of its ruling, which leaves BCRA, as enacted, in effect until the Supreme Court issues a decision. (For information about the decision, see CRS Report RS21511, Campaign Finance: Brief Overview of McConnell v. FEC.) Under the BCRA expedited review provision, the court's decision will be reviewed directly by the U.S. Supreme Court, which scheduled oral argument ...
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Campaign Finance Law: The Supreme Court Upholds Key Provisions of BCRA in McConnell v. FEC

Campaign Finance Law: The Supreme Court Upholds Key Provisions of BCRA in McConnell v. FEC

Date: December 19, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report discusses the Supreme Court's decision in McConnell v. FEC. The court upheld against facial constitutional challenges key portions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), (P.L. 107-155, commonly known as the McCain-Feingold or Shays-Meehan campaign finance reform law).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan’s 2008 Presidential Election

Taiwan’s 2008 Presidential Election

Date: April 2, 2008
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report discusses Taiwan's 2008 presidential elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Date: March 14, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: In 2004 and 2005, Afghanistan adopted a permanent constitution and elected a president and a parliament. The parliament is emerging as a significant force in Afghan politics, as shown in debate over a new cabinet proposed in March 2006. However, insurgent violence continues to threaten Afghan stability. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Uganda: Recent Elections and Current Conditions

Uganda: Recent Elections and Current Conditions

Date: July 19, 2001
Creator: Dagne, Ted & Harding, Zarina
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

Date: September 17, 2008
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report discusses the current political conditions of Kenya, which has long been an important ally of the United States. The report focuses particularly on the December 2007 elections, which many international observers have declared as rigged and deeply flawed. The report also discusses violence that erupted once election results were announced, as well as U.S. efforts to urge Kenya toward election reforms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

Date: May 14, 2009
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report discusses the current political conditions of Kenya, which has long been an important ally of the United States. The report focuses particularly on the December 2007 elections, which many international observers have declared as rigged and deeply flawed. The report also discusses violence that erupted once election results were announced, as well as U.S. efforts to urge Kenya toward election reforms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report discusses the current political conditions of Kenya, which has long been an important ally of the United States. The report focuses particularly on the December 2007 elections, which many international observers have declared as rigged and deeply flawed. The report also discusses violence that erupted once election results were announced, as well as U.S. efforts to urge Kenya toward election reforms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality

Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality

Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
Description: For the first time in its history, the Palestinian parliament is set to be led by Hamas, which the United States and European Union have designated a foreign terrorist organization. Although some lauded the generally free and fair election in January 2006, others criticized the outcome and accused Hamas of “hijacking” democracy. This report provides an overview of the new political realities in the West Bank and Gaza after the election, the challenges Fatah and Hamas face, and possible implications for U.S. policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny

The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny

Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report first discusses the key holdings enunciated by the Supreme Court in Buckley, including those upholding reasonable contribution limits, striking down expenditure limits, upholding disclosure reporting requirements, and upholding the system of voluntary presidential election expenditure limitations linked with public financing. It then examines the Court's extension of Buckley in several subsequent cases, evaluating them in various regulatory contexts: contribution limits, expenditure limits, disclosure requirements, and political party soft money and electioneering communication restrictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department