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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Coordinated Party Expenditures in Federal Elections: An Overview
This report examines campaign finance law in the context of political party committee expenditures. It discusses relevant Supreme Court precedent and recent legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491338/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33101/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33102/
Cote d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the recent political instability in Côte d'Ivoire, which has surfaced most recently in February 2011, and stems from a contested November 28, 2010, presidential election. This report discusses background information on Côte d'Ivoire's long struggle toward peace, political stability, and democratic governance. This report also addresses U.S. interests regarding Côte d'Ivoire's stability and democratic progress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33100/
Cote d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the recent political instability in Côte d'Ivoire, which has surfaced most recently in February 2011, and stems from a contested November 28, 2010 presidential election. This report discusses background information on Côte d'Ivoire's long struggle toward peace, political stability, and democratic governance. It also addresses U.S. interests regarding Côte d'Ivoire's stability and democratic progress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122343/
Côte d’Ivoire’s Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the recent political instability in Côte d'Ivoire, which has surfaced most recently in February 2011, and stems from a contested November 28, 2010 presidential election. This report discusses background information on Côte d'Ivoire's long struggle toward peace, political stability, and democratic governance. It also addresses U.S. interests regarding Côte d'Ivoire's stability and democratic progress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99126/
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress
Report that describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228006/
Delegate Totals and Dates for Presidential Primaries and Caucuses, 1988
This report provides the 1988 Democratic and Republican delegate totals and the calendar of Presidential primaries and caucuses, by State. The information is presented in four separate calendars: alphabetically by State; chronologically by primary or caucus date; and separately for each party, arranged i n State order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9070/
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions
As Congress considers proposals relating to DREs, salient issues might include the lack of information about DRE security, especially in relation to other systems and other components of election integrity; potential conflicts with HAVA requirements that might be associated with the proposals; how those proposals might impact voter confidence; and what impacts they might have on future innovation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8245/
Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9716/
Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
In 2005, Egypt conducted two sets of elections that illustrate both the opportunities and challenges for U.S. democracy promotion policy in the Middle East. On September 7, 2005, Egypt conducted its first multi-candidate presidential election, resulting in the reelection of President Hosni Mubarak with 88% of the vote. Although some have credited Egypt for holding a competitive election, many have criticized the outcome and alleged fraud. Parliamentary elections in Egypt resulted in the ruling NDP party securing an overwhelming majority of seats but also saw independent candidates affiliated with the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood winning nearly 20% of seats, a dramatic gain from previous elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10216/
Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7481/
The Eighteen Year Old Vote: The Twenty-sixth Amendment and Subsequent Voting Rates of Newly Enfranchised Age Groups
This report traces the progress of proposals to expand the right to vote to citizens between the ages of 18 and 21, culminating in the ratification of the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States in 1971. It also reviews the voting rates of the newly enfranchised age group and compares them to voting rates of other age groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8805/
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election
The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1635/
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election
The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs956/
Election Projections: First Amendment Issues
Media projections may be based both on exit polls and on information acquired as to actual ballot counts. The First Amendment would generally preclude Congress from prohibiting the media from interviewing voters after they exit the polls. It apparently would also preclude Congress from prohibiting the media from reporting the results of those polls. Congress, could, however, ban voter solicitation within a certain distance from a polling place, and might be able to include exit polling within such a ban. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1637/
Election Reform and Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Analysis of Security Issues
This report discusses several questions about voting-system security. To address these questions, this report begins with a description of the historical and policy context of the controversy. That is followed by an analysis of the issues in the broader context of computer security. The next section discusses several proposals that have been made for addressing those issues, and the last section discusses options for action that might be considered by policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4396/
Elections in Kashmir
The United States had urged the holding of free and fair elections to be followed by renewed dialogue between India and Pakistan to resolve their long-running dispute. India has made clear that it will not engage such dialogue until Islamabad has put an end to cross-border infiltration of Islamic militants into Indian-held Kashmir. Following the elections, New Delhi announced a major troop redeployment after a tense ten-month standoff at the India-Pakistan frontier. Militant separatist groups in both Pakistan and Kashmir have stated that the ground realities are unchanged and so their violent campaign will continue. In apparent confirmation of these statements, numerous coordinated attacks in November 2002 killed dozens. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7015/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1642/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5861/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5860/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2601/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2600/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6949/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4401/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4400/
The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals
Following the closely contested presidential election of 2000, it is anticipated that Congress may revisit the issue of Electoral College reform. Although some reforms could be effected through federal or state statutes, most would require overcoming the considerable hurdles encountered by proposed constitutional amendments: two-thirds approval by both houses of Congress, followed by ratification by three-fourths (38) of the states, usually within a period of seven years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5853/
The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals
Following the closely contested presidential election of 2000, it is anticipated that Congress may revisit the issue of Electoral College reform. Although some reforms could be effected through federal or state statutes, most would require overcoming the considerable hurdles encountered by proposed constitutional amendments: two-thirds approval by both houses of Congress, followed by ratification by three-fourths (38) of the states, usually within a period of seven years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1631/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5857/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs955/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1634/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4395/
The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
This report provides information about the electoral college, its origins, who makes up the college today, the 2012 presidental election, and calls for the reform of the electoral college. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122289/
Electoral College Reform: 111th Congress Proposals and Other Current Developments
This report examines and analyzes alternative proposals for change within the electoral college, presents pro and con arguments, and identifies and analyzes 111th Congress proposals and contemporary alternative reform developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491125/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 107th Congress
Seven proposals to reform the Electoral College system have been introduced to date in the 107th Congress. H.J.Res. 3 (Representative Green of Texas), and H.J.Res. 5 (Representative Delahunt) would eliminate the electoral college, substituting direct popular election of the President. H.J.Res. 1 (Representative Clyburn), H.J.Res. 18 (Representative Engel), and H.J.Res. 37 (Representative Clement) would incorporate the “district” method of awarding electoral votes, and H.J.Res. 17 (Representative Engel) would provide for proportional award of electoral votes. H.J.Res. 25 (Representative Leach) is a hybrid plan. These measures have been referred to the House Judiciary Committee and await further action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1632/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 107th Congress
Seven proposals to reform the Electoral College system have been introduced to date in the 107th Congress. H.J.Res. 3 (Representative Green of Texas), and H.J.Res. 5 (Representative Delahunt) would eliminate the electoral college, substituting direct popular election of the President. H.J.Res. 1 (Representative Clyburn), H.J.Res. 18 (Representative Engel), and H.J.Res. 37 (Representative Clement) would incorporate the “district” method of awarding electoral votes, and H.J.Res. 17 (Representative Engel) would provide for proportional award of electoral votes. H.J.Res. 25 (Representative Leach) is a hybrid plan. These measures have been referred to the House Judiciary Committee and await further action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4394/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 107th Congress
Seven proposals to reform the Electoral College system have been introduced to date in the 107th Congress. H.J.Res. 3 (Representative Green of Texas), and H.J.Res. 5 (Representative Delahunt) would eliminate the electoral college, substituting direct popular election of the President. H.J.Res. 1 (Representative Clyburn), H.J.Res. 18 (Representative Engel), and H.J.Res. 37 (Representative Clement) would incorporate the “district” method of awarding electoral votes, and H.J.Res. 17 (Representative Engel) would provide for proportional award of electoral votes. H.J.Res. 25 (Representative Leach) is a hybrid plan. These measures have been referred to the House Judiciary Committee and await further action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4393/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10208/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9300/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9660/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4402/
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Legislation in the 108th Congress
Several bills have been introduced in the 108th Congress to address issues that have been raised about the security of direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines. Touchscreen and other DREs using computer-style displays are arguably the most versatile and voter-friendly of any current voting system. The popularity of DREs, particularly the touchscreen variety, has grown in recent years. In addition, the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA, P.L. 107 — 252), while not requiring or prohibiting the use of any specific kind of voting system, does promote the use of DREs through some of its provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8200/
Energy Policy: Election Year Issues and Legislative Proposals
This report looks at how controversies stemming from various importance given to different aspects of United States energy policy affect the legislation on energy policy, particularly during election years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122263/
Executive Branch Power to Postpone Elections
Because of the continuing threat of terrorism, concerns have been raised about the potential for terrorist events to occur close to or during the voting process for the November 2004 elections. For instance, the question has been raised as to whether a sufficiently calamitous event could result in the postponement of the election, and what mechanisms are in place to deal with such an event. This report focuses on who has the constitutional authority to postpone elections, to whom such power could be delegated, and what legal limitations exist to such a postponement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5856/
Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9153/
Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options
This report provides an overview and analysis of two recurring questions surrounding the federal government's role in financing presidential nominating conventions. First, how much public funding supports presidential nominating conventions? Second, what options exist for changing that amount if Congress chooses to do so? Both issues have generated controversy in the past and continue to be the subject of debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31486/
Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options
This report provides an overview and analysis of two recurring questions surrounding the federal government's role in financing presidential nominating conventions. First, how much public funding supports presidential nominating conventions? Second, what options exist for changing that amount if Congress chooses to do so? Both issues have generated controversy in the past and continue to be the subject of debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463493/
Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options
This report provides an overview and analysis of two recurring questions surrounding the federal government's role in financing presidential nominating conventions. First, how much public funding supports presidential nominating conventions? Second, what options exist for changing that amount if Congress chooses to do so? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462320/
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7928/