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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but the government has been unable to reduce sectarian violence, and there are growing signs of fragmentation within it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10228/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10229/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
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Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections in Afghanistan were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai was declared the winner on November 3, 2004 with about 55% of the vote. Parliamentary, provincial, and district elections were to be held in April-May 2005, but parliamentary and provincial elections are now to be held September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6722/
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai won with about 55% of the vote. In a climate of escalating insurgent violence in Afghanistan, parliamentary and provincial elections are to be held on September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6724/
Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections in Afghanistan were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai was declared the winner on November 3, 2004 with about 55% of the vote, and he subsequently named a cabinet incorporating most major factions but stressing qualifications. Parliamentary, provincial, and district elections were to be held in April-May 2005, but they are now almost certain to be postponed until at least September 2005. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6723/
July 1992 Japanese Elections
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
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Election Reform and Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Analysis of Security Issues
This report discusses several questions about voting-system security. To address these questions, this report begins with a description of the historical and policy context of the controversy. That is followed by an analysis of the issues in the broader context of computer security. The next section discusses several proposals that have been made for addressing those issues, and the last section discusses options for action that might be considered by policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4396/
Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances
This report is one of several CRS products related to congressional continuity and contingency planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9109/
Out-of-State Money in the Congressional Elections of 1992, 1994, and 1996: Trends and Policy Issues
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Afghanistan: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
Presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, with heavy turnout and minimal violence. Karzai won with about 55% of the vote. In a climate of escalating insurgent violence in Afghanistan, parliamentary and provincial elections are to be held on September 18, 2005; district elections are put off until 2006. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7229/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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Iraq: Elections and New Government
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Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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Iraq: Elections and New Government
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Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7481/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
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2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options
This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122266/
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, As Amended: Its History and Current Issues
Several bills have been introduced in the 110th Congress concerning the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) that would rename the short title of the act, and address its bilingual provisions and issues of deceptive practices and voter intimidation during elections. This report discusses this issue at length and also addresses allegations of voting irregularities and of violations of the VRA during the presidential election of 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26107/
Procedures for Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives
Under the U.S. Constitution, each House of Congress has the express authority to be the judge of the "elections and returns" of its own Members. Although initial challenges and recounts for the House are conducted at the state level, under the state's authority to administer federal elections, continuing contests may be presented to the House, which, as the final arbiter, may make a conclusive determination of a claim to the seat. This report describes these procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29688/
Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress
Report exploring super Political Action Committees, what they are, how they developed, how much they raised and spent during the 2010 election cycle, and a preliminary analysis of the 2012 cycle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227731/
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1151/
Postponement and Rescheduling of Elections to Federal Office
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Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation
This report provides an introduction to the laws governing the financing of Federal election campaigns and presents data on campaign finance activity in the 1980’s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8170/
Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Legislation in the 108th Congress
Several bills have been introduced in the 108th Congress to address issues that have been raised about the security of direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines. Touchscreen and other DREs using computer-style displays are arguably the most versatile and voter-friendly of any current voting system. The popularity of DREs, particularly the touchscreen variety, has grown in recent years. In addition, the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA, P.L. 107 — 252), while not requiring or prohibiting the use of any specific kind of voting system, does promote the use of DREs through some of its provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8200/
Campaign Finance in the 2000 Federal Elections: Overview and Estimates of the Flow of Money
Federal election law regulates money in federal elections through a ban on union and corporate treasury money, limits on contributions, and uniform, periodic disclosure of receipts and expenditures. Money raised and spent under these laws to directly influence federal elections is commonly known as hard money. Money that is largely outside the restrictions and prohibitions of the federal regulatory framework–but raised and spent in a manner suggesting possible intent to affect federal elections–is commonly known as soft money. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1633/
Voter Eligibility Verification Pilot Program
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Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs954/
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law
Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs425/
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues
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Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections
This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84016/
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)
This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2010. A “lame duck” session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94073/
Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides context for understanding what super PACs might mean for federal campaign finance policy and federal elections using a question-and-answer format with attention to super PAC activities in 2010 and 2012, and what those findings might mean looking ahead. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462706/
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress
This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462157/
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)
This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2012. A "lame duck" session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463184/
Brazil's October 2014 Presidential Election
This report briefly discusses the candidates and policy shifts in Brazil's 2014 Presidential election. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463240/
Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies
This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31349/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
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Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33101/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33102/
The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress
This report includes updated material that emphasizes the issues most prominently before the 113th Congress. It also discusses foundational information about major elements of campaign finance policy digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272013/
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy
Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular in recent federal election cycles. These advertisements are often interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has determined that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech that cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as "express advocacy" or "magic words" can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Upcoming legislation would further investigate and elaborate upon this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10829/
Campaign Financing
This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1625/
Soft and Hard Money in Contemporary Elections: What Federal Law Does and Does Not Regulate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1622/
Campaign Financing
This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1624/
Campaign Finance Reform and Incentives to Voluntarily Limit Candidate Spending From Personal Funds: Constitutional Issues Raised by Public Subsidies and Variable Contribution Limits
The Supreme Court in Buckley v. Valeo ruled that spending limits, including the amount a candidate can spend on his or her own campaign from personal funds (also known as personal fund expenditure limits) are unconstitutional. The Court did, however, uphold a system of spending limits, on the condition that they are voluntarily accepted in exchange for some form of public financing. As a result of these Court rulings, the concept of various incentives toward voluntary compliance with a personal funds expenditure limit has been developed. This report discusses some constitutional issues raised by two such incentives: public subsidies and variable contribution limits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1641/
Campaign Finance Reform: Constitutional Issues Raised by Disclosure Requirements
Campaign finance reform legislation often contains provisions that would impose additional reporting and disclosure requirements under the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). For example, S. 27 (McCain/Feingold), would require disclosure of disbursements of expenditures over $10,000 for “electioneering communications,” which are defined to include broadcast ads that “refer” to federal office candidates, with identification of donors of $500 or more. S. 22 (Hagel/Landrieu) would increase and expedite current disclosure requirements under FECA. H.R. 380 (Shays/Meehan) would lower the current FECA threshold for contribution reporting from $200 to $50 and impose reporting requirements for soft money disbursements by persons other than political parties. This report will discuss some of the constitutional issues relating to these and other such disclosure requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1640/
Campaign Financing
This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1626/