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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals

The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals

Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige & Neale, Thomas H
Description: Following the closely contested presidential election of 2000, it is anticipated that Congress may revisit the issue of Electoral College reform. Although some reforms could be effected through federal or state statutes, most would require overcoming the considerable hurdles encountered by proposed constitutional amendments: two-thirds approval by both houses of Congress, followed by ratification by three-fourths (38) of the states, usually within a period of seven years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: July 10, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, Paige L.
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular in recent federal election cycles. These advertisements are often interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has determined that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech that cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as "express advocacy" or "magic words" can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Upcoming legislation would further investigate and elaborate upon this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic situation in Ukraine. It also discusses Ukraine's foreign policy, especially in respect to NATO, European Union, and Russia. The Ukraine's energy issues are also briefly deliberated in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: May 12, 2011
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic situation in Ukraine. It also discusses Ukraine's foreign policy, especially in respect to NATO, European Union, and Russia. The Ukraine's energy issues are also briefly deliberated in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: April 6, 2011
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report discusses the current political and economic situation in Ukraine. Ukraine occupies the sensitive position between Russia and NATO member states Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania adds to its geostrategic significance. This report also discusses the U.S. policy in regard to Ukraine, U.S. aid to Ukraine, and other legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine's Political Crisis: Ukrainian Presidential Elections and U.S. Policy

Ukraine's Political Crisis: Ukrainian Presidential Elections and U.S. Policy

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Political Broadcasts - Regulate or Deregulate?

Political Broadcasts - Regulate or Deregulate?

Date: March 2, 1984
Creator: Yadlosky, Elizabeth & Espenshade, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
July 1992 Japanese Elections

July 1992 Japanese Elections

Date: June 5, 1992
Creator: Young, Jeffrey D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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