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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: March 7, 2007
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: Most voting systems used in U.S. elections rely on computers in some way. The most computerized is the direct recording electronic voting machine, or DRE. In this system, votes are recorded directly onto computer memory devices. This report discusses questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs. Possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: October 16, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system. This report discusses the debate regarding campaign finance regulation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report discusses the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG), which are a set of technical standards for voting systems that use computers to assist in recording or counting votes. Systems covered include most used in the United States—not only DREs (direct recording electronic systems) such as touchscreen voting machines, but also optical scan and punch card systems. Hand-counted paper-ballot and lever-machine systems, which do not involve computers, are not covered. However, they are used by a small and decreasing number of election jurisdictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Organizations and Campaign Activity: Timing of Reporting Requirements under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

527 Organizations and Campaign Activity: Timing of Reporting Requirements under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report compares the timing of election activity reporting requirements under the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), and discusses H.R. 1204, which would amend the timing of the IRC’s reporting requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report discusses the social and political development in Haiti and U.S. its relations with United States. Following elections that were widely heralded as the first free and fair elections in Haiti's then-186-year history, Jean-Bertrand Aristide first became Haitian President in February 1991.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Special Elections and Membership Changes in the 103d Congress, First Session

Special Elections and Membership Changes in the 103d Congress, First Session

Date: April 7, 1994
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report provides information on membership changes in the first session of the 103d Congress through special elections for vacancies in the House of Representatives and appointments and special elections for vacancies in the Senate .
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: November 3, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report provides an overview of selected campaign finance policy issues that have received recent legislative attention, or have otherwise been prominent, and which could receive attention during the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system. The result of a U.S.-supported election process, it continues to be driven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L. & Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report provides an overview of the election contests in Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq, including possible outcomes and implications for U.S. policy. The strategic influence of Iran in the Middle East, the stability of Iraq, and the ongoing war in Afghanistan are at the forefront of U.S. policy and Congressional interest in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections in Haiti

Elections in Haiti

Date: October 20, 2015
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report briefly discusses various issues regarding the election process in Haiti. Haiti is in the midst of a national election cycle to fill all 119 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, 20 seats in the 30-seat Senate, and most municipal offices - and to elect a new president.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Election Commission: Overview and Selected Issues for Congress

The Federal Election Commission: Overview and Selected Issues for Congress

Date: December 22, 2015
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: The report provides background information about key areas of controversy and context that might be relevant for Congress as the House and Senate approach their oversight duties, appropriate funds, consider nominations, and explore options for restructuring the FEC or maintaining the status quo.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process, as well as issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Argentina Votes for Change in 2015 Presidential Election

Argentina Votes for Change in 2015 Presidential Election

Date: November 23, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report briefly discusses the November 22, 2015 elections in Argentina. Mauricio Macri defeated Daniel Scioli. In a close race, Macri, the mayor of Buenos Aires, took 51.4% of the vote compared to 48.6% for Scioli, the governor of Buenos Aires province.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Election Commission: Enforcement Process and Selected Issues for Congress

The Federal Election Commission: Enforcement Process and Selected Issues for Congress

Date: December 22, 2015
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report provides Congress with a resource for understanding the Federal Election Commission's (FEC) enforcement process and context for why enforcement is consequential.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Date: February 20, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report provides background on events leading up to Zimbabwe's event in March and June 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Argentina's 2015 Presidential Election

Argentina's 2015 Presidential Election

Date: October 26, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report briefly discusses the Argentinian Presidential election, held on October 25, 2015. The close results set up a second round on November 22, 2015, between Daniel Scioli and Mauricio Macri.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Canada's October 2015 Elections

Canada's October 2015 Elections

Date: September 22, 2015
Creator: Meyer, Peter J. & Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the political climate in Canada, leading up to Canada's next election, scheduled for October 19, 2015. The outcome of the election may have implications for the United States, which is Canada's largest trading partner, largest energy consumer, and NATO ally.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions

The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: December 30, 2015
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about the presidential nominating process, including how the delegates to the national conventions are chosen, the differences between a caucus and a primary, national party rules changes for 2016, and the national conventions themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Guatemala: President Pérez Resigns; Runoff Presidential Election on October 25

Guatemala: President Pérez Resigns; Runoff Presidential Election on October 25

Date: September 17, 2015
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report provides background on the runoff presidential election in Guatemala following the resignation of President Otto Pérez Molina in September. In response to a court order, he appeared at court to hear charges of criminal association, corruption, and fraud brought against him; Congress accepted Pérez's resignation and swore in Vice President Alejandro Maldonado as president.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?

House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?

Date: January 22, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Sula P. & Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report discusses how vacancies in Congress are filled when a Senator or Representative dies, resigns, declines to serve, or is expelled or excluded from either house. The Constitution requires that vacancies in both houses be filled by special election, but in the case of the Senate, it empowers state legislatures to provide for temporary appointments by the state governor until special elections can be scheduled.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department