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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: December 17, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report discusses various issues regarding campaign finance law and potential options for policy responses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report addresses various questions regarding Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines (DREs). Questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs and possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) have been concluded despite insurgent violence. U.S. officials hope that the high turnout among Sunni Arabs in the December 15 elections -- and post-election bargaining among all factions -- will produce an inclusive government that reduces insurgent violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: January 10, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) have been concluded despite insurgent violence. U.S. officials hope that the high turnout among Sunni Arabs in the December 15 elections -- and post-election bargaining among all factions -- will produce an inclusive government that reduces insurgent violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Date: June 20, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report provides a summary of the issues presented by 12 groups of appellants in their jurisdictional statements in 2003. Shortly after the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155 (H.R. 2356, 107th Cong.) was enacted in March 2002 (also known as the McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform legislation), Senator Mitch McConnell and others filed suit in U.S. District Court for D.C. against the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) arguing that provisions of the law are unconstitutional. Ultimately, eleven suits challenging BCRA were brought by more than 80 plaintiffs and consolidated into one lead case, McConnell v. FEC. On May 2, 2003, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its decision in McConnell v. FEC, No. 02-CV-0582 striking down some key provisions of the law as unconstitutional, but on May 19, it issued a stay of its ruling, which leaves BCRA, as enacted, in effect until the Supreme Court issues a decision. (For information about the decision, see CRS Report RS21511, Campaign Finance: Brief Overview of McConnell v. FEC.) Under the BCRA expedited review provision, the court's decision will be reviewed directly by the U.S. Supreme Court, which scheduled oral argument ...
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Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Garret, R. S.
Description: This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: September 7, 2001
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J. & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: The aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created staggering problems and challenging conditions for the people of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, as well as for the state and local governments there. Many problems were immediately apparent, whereas others that involved ongoing government functions, such as elections, were less obvious at first. This report discusses the challenge of running elections in the many affected communities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Law: The Supreme Court Upholds Key Provisions of BCRA in McConnell v. FEC

Campaign Finance Law: The Supreme Court Upholds Key Provisions of BCRA in McConnell v. FEC

Date: December 19, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report discusses the Supreme Court's decision in McConnell v. FEC. The court upheld against facial constitutional challenges key portions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), (P.L. 107-155, commonly known as the McCain-Feingold or Shays-Meehan campaign finance reform law).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ukraine’s Orange Revolution and U.S. Policy

Ukraine’s Orange Revolution and U.S. Policy

Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine’s new President, after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime’s electoral fraud, in what has been dubbed the “Orange Revolution,” after Yushchenko’s campaign color. The “Orange Revolution” has sparked a great deal of interest in Congress and elsewhere. This report examines the current political climate in Ukraine and policy issues for the U.S.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Date: November 2, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the political situation in Afghanistan, more specifically it discusses the recent elections, newly formed constitution and the elected government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan’s 2008 Presidential Election

Taiwan’s 2008 Presidential Election

Date: April 2, 2008
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report discusses Taiwan's 2008 presidential elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Date: March 14, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: In 2004 and 2005, Afghanistan adopted a permanent constitution and elected a president and a parliament. The parliament is emerging as a significant force in Afghan politics, as shown in debate over a new cabinet proposed in March 2006. However, insurgent violence continues to threaten Afghan stability. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: March 7, 2007
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: Most voting systems used in U.S. elections rely on computers in some way. The most computerized is the direct recording electronic voting machine, or DRE. In this system, votes are recorded directly onto computer memory devices. This report discusses questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs. Possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Issues

Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report discusses the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG), which are a set of technical standards for voting systems that use computers to assist in recording or counting votes. Systems covered include most used in the United States—not only DREs (direct recording electronic systems) such as touchscreen voting machines, but also optical scan and punch card systems. Hand-counted paper-ballot and lever-machine systems, which do not involve computers, are not covered. However, they are used by a small and decreasing number of election jurisdictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Organizations and Campaign Activity: Timing of Reporting Requirements under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

527 Organizations and Campaign Activity: Timing of Reporting Requirements under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report compares the timing of election activity reporting requirements under the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), and discusses H.R. 1204, which would amend the timing of the IRC’s reporting requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report discusses the social and political development in Haiti and U.S. its relations with United States. Following elections that were widely heralded as the first free and fair elections in Haiti's then-186-year history, Jean-Bertrand Aristide first became Haitian President in February 1991.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system. The result of a U.S.-supported election process, it continues to be driven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L. & Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report provides an overview of the election contests in Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq, including possible outcomes and implications for U.S. policy. The strategic influence of Iran in the Middle East, the stability of Iraq, and the ongoing war in Afghanistan are at the forefront of U.S. policy and Congressional interest in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process, as well as issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Date: February 20, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report provides background on events leading up to Zimbabwe's event in March and June 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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