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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Palestinian Elections

Palestinian Elections

Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
Description: Fair and transparent elections are seen by experts and policymakers as a necessary step in Palestinian democratization and for the peace process. Palestinian political reform is an important element in the U.S. policy of promoting democracy, civil society, and good governance in the Middle East. It remains unclear how U.S. policy toward the Palestinian will change now that a designated terrorist organization -- Hamas -- is set to head the government. Some in Congress support restricting or ending economic assistance to the Palestinians so that U.S. aid does not benefit a foreign terrorist organization. Others are wary of initiatives that may weaken Palestinian President Abbas.
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Palestinian Elections

Palestinian Elections

Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
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Palestinian Elections

Palestinian Elections

Date: February 9, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
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House Contested Election Cases: 1933 to 2005

House Contested Election Cases: 1933 to 2005

Date: October 26, 2006
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report provides a summary of contested election cases from the 73rd Congress through the 109th Congress, 1933 to 2005. The descriptions primarily provide information concerning the nature of the action and the disposition of the case. The summary is limited to only those cases that were considered by the House of Representatives; cases decided at the state level are beyond the scope of this report.
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Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J. & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: The aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created staggering problems and challenging conditions for the people of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, as well as for the state and local governments there. Many problems were immediately apparent, whereas others that involved ongoing government functions, such as elections, were less obvious at first. This report discusses the challenge of running elections in the many affected communities.
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The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and Misperceptions

Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report addresses various questions regarding Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines (DREs). Questions that arise frequently with respect to the controversy surrounding DREs and possible misperceptions in the debate can be classified into three categories: those relating to DREs themselves, those that relate to paper audit trails, and those that relate to recounts and audits.
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence.
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but it is not clear that the new government will be able to reduce ongoing violence.
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but the government has been unable to reduce sectarian violence, and there are growing signs of fragmentation within it.
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections in 2005 for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence and attracted progressively increasing Sunni participation. However, escalating sectarian violence and factional infighting have delayed formation of a new government.
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections in 2005 for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence and attracted progressively increasing Sunni participation. However, escalating sectarian violence and factional infighting have delayed formation of a new government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: March 30, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections in 2005 for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence and attracted progressively increasing Sunni participation. However, escalating sectarian violence and factional infighting have delayed formation of a new government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) have been concluded despite insurgent violence. U.S. officials hope that the high turnout among Sunni Arabs in the December 15 elections -- and post-election bargaining among all factions -- will produce an inclusive government that reduces insurgent violence.
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Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution

Date: January 10, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) have been concluded despite insurgent violence. U.S. officials hope that the high turnout among Sunni Arabs in the December 15 elections -- and post-election bargaining among all factions -- will produce an inclusive government that reduces insurgent violence.
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Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P. & Gomez-Granger, Julissa
Description: This fact sheet tracks the current heads of government in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, and provides the dates of the last and next election for head of government.
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Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: January 15, 2006
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M
Description: This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region.
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Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections

Date: January 15, 2006
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Description: In 2005, Egypt conducted two sets of elections that illustrate both the opportunities and challenges for U.S. democracy promotion policy in the Middle East. On September 7, 2005, Egypt conducted its first multi-candidate presidential election, resulting in the reelection of President Hosni Mubarak with 88% of the vote. Although some have credited Egypt for holding a competitive election, many have criticized the outcome and alleged fraud. Parliamentary elections in Egypt resulted in the ruling NDP party securing an overwhelming majority of seats but also saw independent candidates affiliated with the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood winning nearly 20% of seats, a dramatic gain from previous elections.
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Campaign Finance

Campaign Finance

Date: February 8, 2006
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, long centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. This report discusses campaign finance practices, enduring issues and today’s paramount issues. In addition it presents the Legislative Action in the 108th and 109th Congress, as well as the Congressional efforts to close perceived loopholes in Federal Election Law.
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Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Date: November 2, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the political situation in Afghanistan, more specifically it discusses the recent elections, newly formed constitution and the elected government.
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Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: In 2004 and 2005, Afghanistan adopted a permanent constitution and elected a president and a parliament. The parliament is emerging as a significant force in Afghan politics, as shown in debates over a new cabinet and the 2006 budget. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
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Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Afghanistan: Elections, Constitution, and Government

Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: In 2004 and 2005, Afghanistan adopted a permanent constitution and elected a president and a parliament. The parliament is emerging as a significant force in Afghan politics, as shown in debate over a new cabinet proposed in March 2006. However, insurgent violence continues to threaten Afghan stability. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman.
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Peru: 2006 Elections and Issues for Congress

Peru: 2006 Elections and Issues for Congress

Date: April 25, 2006
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: None
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Palestinian Elections

Palestinian Elections

Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Political Organizations: Legislation in the 109th Congress

527 Political Organizations: Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E. & Lunder, Erika
Description: The 109th Congress is examining the role of groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) that are involved in federal elections but are not operating under the requirements and restrictions of federal election law. Although such groups only recently emerged into public awareness, in 2004, they were widely seen as major players in the presidential election, with more than $400 million spent seeking to influence the outcome. Strictly speaking, the term “527” refers to a section of the Internal Revenue Code, which was added in 1975 to provide tax-exempt status to federal, state, and local political organizations, as defined in that statute. The controversy over these 527 groups arises from two factors: the different definitions used in federal election law and tax law as to what constitutes election-related activity and, further, the lack of certainty as to what election law itself regulates or may permissibly regulate. This report discusses these groups in detail, as well as related legislation.
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