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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Date: June 12, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Prior to enactment of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155, the term “soft money” generally referred to unregulated funds, perceived as resulting from loopholes in the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), 2 U.S.C. §§ 431 et seq. Generally, the intent of BCRA, (effective Nov. 6, 2002), which amends FECA, is to restrict the raising and spending of soft money. This Issue Brief discusses constitutional and legal issues surrounding two major types of soft money that BCRA regulates: political party soft money and soft money used for issue advocacy communications. Corporate and labor union soft money, which FECA exempts from regulation and is not addressed by BCRA, is also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Date: August 29, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Prior to enactment of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155, the term “soft money” generally referred to unregulated funds, perceived as resulting from loopholes in the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), 2 U.S.C. §§ 431 et seq. Generally, the intent of BCRA, (effective Nov. 6, 2002), which amends FECA, is to restrict the raising and spending of soft money. This Issue Brief discusses constitutional and legal issues surrounding two major types of soft money that BCRA regulates: political party soft money and soft money used for issue advocacy communications. Corporate and labor union soft money, which FECA exempts from regulation and is not addressed by BCRA, is also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Date: February 12, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Prior to enactment of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155, the term “soft money” generally referred to unregulated funds, perceived as resulting from loopholes in the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), 2 U.S.C. §§ 431 et seq. Generally, the intent of BCRA, (effective Nov. 6, 2002), which amends FECA, is to restrict the raising and spending of soft money. This Issue Brief discusses constitutional and legal issues surrounding two major types of soft money that BCRA regulates: political party soft money and soft money used for issue advocacy communications. Corporate and labor union soft money, which FECA exempts from regulation and is not addressed by BCRA, is also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: June 29, 2005
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Political Organizations Under Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

Political Organizations Under Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

Date: January 23, 2004
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Political Organizations Under Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

Political Organizations Under Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

Date: January 11, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Free and Reduced-Rate Television Time for Potential Candidates

Free and Reduced-Rate Television Time for Potential Candidates

Date: July 7, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E; Rutkus, Denis Steven & Greely, Kevin B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues for the 107th Congress

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues for the 107th Congress

Date: April 2, 2002
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: April 30, 2001
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: October 10, 2002
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: September 25, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: January 21, 2004
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Date: September 2, 2004
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Election Laws: Overview of Statutes Regarding Emergency Election Postponement Within the State

State Election Laws: Overview of Statutes Regarding Emergency Election Postponement Within the State

Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election Projections: First Amendment Issues

Election Projections: First Amendment Issues

Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: Media projections may be based both on exit polls and on information acquired as to actual ballot counts. The First Amendment would generally preclude Congress from prohibiting the media from interviewing voters after they exit the polls. It apparently would also preclude Congress from prohibiting the media from reporting the results of those polls. Congress, could, however, ban voter solicitation within a certain distance from a polling place, and might be able to include exit polling within such a ban.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Political Organizations: Legislation in the 109th Congress

527 Political Organizations: Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E. & Lunder, Erika
Description: The 109th Congress is examining the role of groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) that are involved in federal elections but are not operating under the requirements and restrictions of federal election law. Although such groups only recently emerged into public awareness, in 2004, they were widely seen as major players in the presidential election, with more than $400 million spent seeking to influence the outcome. Strictly speaking, the term “527” refers to a section of the Internal Revenue Code, which was added in 1975 to provide tax-exempt status to federal, state, and local political organizations, as defined in that statute. The controversy over these 527 groups arises from two factors: the different definitions used in federal election law and tax law as to what constitutes election-related activity and, further, the lack of certainty as to what election law itself regulates or may permissibly regulate. This report discusses these groups in detail, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Democratic Party of Japan: Its Foreign Policy Position and Implications for U.S. Interests

The Democratic Party of Japan: Its Foreign Policy Position and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 12, 2009
Creator: Konishi, Weston S.
Description: This report analyzes the Democratic Party of Japan's (DPJ) policy platform and reviews the implications for U.S. strategic and economic interests in the event that the party takes control of the Japanese government after the August 30 parliamentary elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Historic 2009 Elections: Implications for U.S. Interests

Japan's Historic 2009 Elections: Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: September 8, 2009
Creator: Konishi, Weston S.
Description: This report analyzes the Democratic Party of Japan's (DPJ) policy platform and reviews the implications for U.S. strategic and economic interests now that the party and its coalition allies are set to take control of the Japanese government in the wake of the August 30 parliamentary elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2012: Frequently Asked Questions

The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2012: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about the presidential nominating process, including how the delegates to the national conventions are chosen, the differences between a caucus and a primary, national party rules changes for 2012, and the national conventions themselves. It is not a comprehensive report on all aspects of the presidential nominating process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Background and Issues

Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: Members of the military and U.S. citizens who live abroad are eligible to register and vote absentee in federal elections under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) of 1986. The law was enacted to improve absentee registration and voting for this group of voters and to consolidate existing laws. This report summarizes the UOCAVA and details modifications and improvements to the UOCAVA since its inception, as well as related pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department