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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)
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A Shortage of Registered Nurses: Is It on the Horizon or Already Here?
The largest traditionally female-dominated health care occupation is registered nurses (RNs). It has been asserted that there is an ongoing nationwide shortage of RNs of various kinds and in various sectors of the health care services industry. Before the latest (mid-2002) release of supply-demand projections from the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), it was estimated, based in whole or part on 1996 HRSA projections, that there would likely be a shortage of RNs in 2007 or shortly thereafter. This report first will analyze recent trends in the RN labor market and then examine HRSA’s new projections, which moved up the date of an RN shortage to 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3260/
A Shortage of Registered Nurses: Is It on the Horizon or Already Here?
The largest, traditionally female-dominated health care occupation is registered nurses (RNs). It has been asserted that there are too few RNs available today to meet employers’ needs, that is, there is a shortage of nurses at the present time. It also has been estimated that there could well be a shortage of RNs in the not-too-distant future. This report will analyze the labor market conditions facing RNs and their employers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1872/
Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is It Time for an OSHA Standard?
Improper ergonomic design of jobs is one of the leading causes of work-related illness, accounting for perhaps a third of employers’ costs under state workers’ compensation laws. Due to the wide variety of circumstances, however, any comprehensive standard would probably have to be complex and costly, while scientific understanding of the problem is not complete. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5142/
Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is It Time for an OSHA Standard?
Improper ergonomic design of jobs is one of the leading causes of work-related illness, accounting for perhaps a third of employers’ costs under state workers’ compensation laws. Due to the wide variety of circumstances, however, any comprehensive standard would probably have to be complex and costly, while scientific understanding of the problem is not complete. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3249/
Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is It Time for an OSHA Standard?
Improper ergonomic design of jobs is one of the leading causes of work-related illness, accounting for perhaps a third of employers’ costs under state workers’ compensation laws. Due to the wide variety of circumstances, however, any comprehensive standard would probably have to be complex and costly, while scientific understanding of the problem is not complete. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1865/
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: Fact Sheet
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OSHA Reform: "Partnership" with Employers
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Federal Regulation of Working Hours: The Ballenger and Ashcroft Proposals (H.R. 1 and S.4)
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Managed Care and State External Review Statutes
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Patient Protection and Managed Care
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Patient Protection and Managed Care: Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Patient Protection and Managed Care: Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Patient Protection and Managed Care: Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Patient Protection and Managed Care: Legislation in the 106th Congress
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Managed Health Care: Federal and State Regulation
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Science Behind the Regulation of Food Safety: Risk Assessment and the Precautionary Principle
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Food Safety Agencies and Authorities: A Primer
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Food Additive Regulations: A Chronology
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The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993
A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs60/
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues
Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs27/
Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups
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Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups
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Derivatives Regulation: Legislation in the 106th Congress
The 106th Congress is considering a general overhaul of derivatives regulation. Pending legislation would codify the unregulated status of certain derivatives, exempt many other currently-regulated contracts from oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and permit the trading of a new kind of contract: a futures contract based on the stock of an individual corporation. Derivatives legislation has been reported out of committee in both House and Senate. This report analyzes this legislation in the 106th Congress, and will be updated as developments warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1223/
Insurance Exclusion Clauses: Excluding War Risks and Terror Risks from Insurance Contracts
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Insurance Regulation: Background and Issues
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Insurance Regulation: Background and Issues
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Insurance Regulation: Background and Issues
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Insurance Regulation and Competition: Background and Issues
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Insurance Regulation and Competition: Background and Issues
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Insurance Regulation and Competition: Background and Issues
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
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Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1670/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1669/
Rising Oil Prices: What Dangers Do They Pose for the Economy?
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The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative: An Overview
The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative (BMENA) is a multilateral development and reform plan aimed at fostering economic and political liberalization in a wide geographic area of Arab and non-Arab Muslim countries. In December 2004, the first BMENA meeting took place in Rabat, Morocco and was called the “Forum for the Future.”At the forum, foreign ministers and finance ministers of the countries in the region stretching from Morocco to Pakistan as well as from the countries of the G8 pledged to create several new development programs and committed $60 million to a regional fund for business development. Critics of BMENA contend that the initiative focuses too heavily on economic issues instead of political reform and does little to strengthen non-governmental organizations and civil society groups in Arab and non- Arab Muslim countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6211/
Government Spending or Tax Reduction: Which Might Add More Stimulus to the Economy?
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Government Spending or Tax Reduction: Which Might Add More Stimulus to the Economy?
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The Supreme Court Upholds EPA Standard-Setting Under the Clean Air Act:
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Authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to Fix Electricity Rates and Charges and to Require Refund Payments by a Public Utility
Sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act concern rates and charges collected by a public utility in transmitting or selling electric energy in interstate commerce. These rates and charges are required to be just and reasonable. States retain jurisdiction over facilities for generation, distribution, or transmission of electric energy in intrastate commerce. The Commission has the authority to determine that an existing rate is unjust or unreasonable and set a new rate. In certain situations Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) may have authority to refund amounts paid in excess of just and reasonable rates. Case law is useful in determining when such a situation may exist. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1620/
The U.S. Long-Term Growth Rate: Has it Increased?
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Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules
On December 7, 1998, federal banking regulators proposed regulations that would have required banks and thrifts to develop formal policies and procedures to identify unusual transactions in customers’ accounts to report as suspicious activity in conjunction with the federal laws outlawing money laundering. Although there were varied proposals before the 106th Congress on the issue, no legislation was enacted. The issue likeliest to command attention in the 107th Congress is international money laundering. There have been recent instances in which banking regulators imposed corrective action, comparable to the Know Your Customer requirements, on several international banking institutions after unearthing potential money laundering activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1618/
The Rise of China and Its Effect on Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea: U.S. Policy Choices
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The Current Economic Recession: How Long, How Deep, and How Different From the Past?
This report examines the current recession and recessions of the previous three decades in detail. It gives a brief overview of the other post-war recessions. It outlines the fiscal and monetary policy response to each recession. It also looks at theories of why recessions occur. The report concludes by asking the question that many commentators in the news have asked recently: is this recession different from the past? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2578/
The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences, and Cures
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