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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act (P.L. 106-554)

The Commodity Futures Modernization Act (P.L. 106-554)

Date: February 3, 2003
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: The Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (CFMA) enacted the most sweeping amendments to derivatives law since the creation of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) in 1974. Provisions included major changes in the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) regarding the regulation of exchange-traded futures contracts, over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, and “security futures,” contracts based on individual stocks (which were previously prohibited).
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Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Date: September 2, 2003
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
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Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
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Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Date: June 8, 2005
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
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Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
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Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?

Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?

Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Elwell, Craig K; Labonte, Marc & Morrison, Wayne M
Description: This report examines the implications (both challenges and opportunities) for the U.S. economy from China’s rapid economic growth and its emergence as a major economic power. It also describes congressional approaches for dealing with various Chinese economic policies deemed damaging to various U.S. economic sectors.
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China's Economic Conditions

China's Economic Conditions

Date: July 12, 2006
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security.
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East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy

East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy

Date: September 18, 2006
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: The end of the Cold War, the rise of China, globalization, free trade agreements, the war on terror, and an institutional approach to keeping the peace is causing dramatic shifts in relationships among countries in East Asia. A new regional architecture in the form of trade, financial, and political arrangements among countries of East Asia is developing that has significant implications for U.S. interests and policy. This report examines this regional architecture with a focus on China, South Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia. The types of arrangements include bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs), regional trade pacts, currency and monetary arrangements, and political and security arrangements.
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U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options

U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options

Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
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Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report includes background information on Bolivia’s political unrest, economic situation, and relations with the United States. In the past few years, Bolivia has experienced extreme political unrest resulting in the country having six presidents since 2001. Under policies of recently-elected leftist-leaning President Evo Morales, Bolivia's relations with neighboring countries, foreign investors, and the United States have been complicated. For some 20 years, U.S. interest in Bolivia has centered on its role as a coca producer and its relationship to Colombia and Peru, the two other major coca- and cocaine-producing countries in the Andes. U.S.-Bolivian relations have become tense in 2006 in the wake of the Morales government's questionable commitment to combating illegal drugs, increasing ties with Venezuela and Cuba, and the nationalization measure.
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Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report discusses the Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns.
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Steel: Price and Policy Issues

Steel: Price and Policy Issues

Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
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Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: This report discusses monetary policy, which can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on aggregate demand or national spending.
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Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Makinen, Gail
Description: This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth.
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Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: This report discusses monetary policy, which can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on aggregate demand or national spending.
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Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Makinen, Gail
Description: This report contains information regarding the Current Economic Conditions, Recent Macroeconomic Developments, Posture of Monetary and Fiscal Policy, Summary of Current Developments, Sources of GDP Growth, Economic Forecasts 2001, and Promotion of Economic Growth. The report also presents statistics regarding the Growth Rate of Real GDP v. Final Sales, Civilian Unemployment Rate, Rate of Change in the Consumer Price Index, Rate of Change in the GDP Deflators, Rate of Change in Labor Costs, U.S. Foreign Trade Deficit, Alternative Measures of Fiscal Policy, The Growth Rates of the Monetary Aggregates, etc.
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Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: None
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The Balanced Budget Proposal: Some Macroeconomic Implications

The Balanced Budget Proposal: Some Macroeconomic Implications

Date: July 29, 1985
Creator: Henderson, John B
Description: This brief report outlines some possible macroeconomic implications of observing a statutory or constitutional commitment to balance the Federal budget. It does not address the legal questions about the proposal or their implementation, nor the economic and political questions related to decisions about the level of Federal revenues or expenditures. On the latter, its analysis refers to revenue and expenditure levels, in relation to total national product, typical of recent years.
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Solar Energy: The Federal Program and Congressional Interest

Solar Energy: The Federal Program and Congressional Interest

Date: February 16, 1984
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: None
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Should the Federal Government Sponsor a National Lottery?: Some Preliminary Considerations

Should the Federal Government Sponsor a National Lottery?: Some Preliminary Considerations

Date: March 11, 1985
Creator: Shorter, Gary
Description: None
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Payday Loans: Federal Regulatory Initiatives

Payday Loans: Federal Regulatory Initiatives

Date: May 23, 2005
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: None
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Pay Compatibility for Federal White-Collar Workers

Pay Compatibility for Federal White-Collar Workers

Date: August 7, 1985
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Description: None
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Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets

Date: September 16, 1987
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: This report discusses the reduction of federal budget deficit and the effect on the rise of interest rates.
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Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options

Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options

Date: July 15, 1985
Creator: Grinnell, David & Cox, William A
Description: In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically.
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