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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4352/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4357/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4358/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4354/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy remained relatively healthy in 2002, despite economic slowdowns in other parts of the world. Foreign investment continued to pour into China, and the Chinese government effectively used public spending to boost the economy. However, painful economic reforms will be necessary to keep the economic strong in 2003 and beyond. The recent outbreak in early 2003 of a very contagious virus called SevereAcuteRespiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China appears to have had a short-term negative impact on the Chinese economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4359/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy remained relatively healthy in 2002, despite economic slowdowns in other parts of the world. Foreign investment continued to pour into China, and the Chinese government effectively used public spending to boost the economy. However, painful economic reforms will be necessary to keep the economic strong in 2003 and beyond. The recent outbreak in early 2003 of a very contagious virus called SevereAcuteRespiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China appears to have had a short-term negative impact on the Chinese economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4356/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy remained relatively healthy in 2002, despite economic slowdowns in other parts of the world. Foreign investment continued to pour into China, and the Chinese government effectively used public spending to boost the economy. However, painful economic reforms will be necessary to keep the economic strong in 2003 and beyond. The recent outbreak in early 2003 of a very contagious virus called SevereAcuteRespiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China appears to have had a short-term negative impact on the Chinese economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4353/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4360/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy remained relatively healthy in 2002, despite economic slowdowns in other parts of the world. Foreign investment continued to pour into China, and the Chinese government effectively used public spending to boost the economy. However, painful economic reforms will be necessary to keep the economic strong in 2003 and beyond. The recent outbreak in early 2003 of a very contagious virus called SevereAcuteRespiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China appears to have had a short-term negative impact on the Chinese economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7833/
U.S. Terms of Trade: Significance, Trends, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7584/
Bonus Depreciation: Economic and Budgetary Issues
This report discusses bonus depreciation as either a temporary stimulus provision or a permanent part of the tax code. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284483/
An Analysis of the Distribution of Wealth Across Households, 1989-2010
The distribution of wealth (net worth) across households has been an underlying consideration in congressional deliberations on various issues, including taxation and social welfare. This report analyzes the change over time in the concentration of net worth (assets minus liabilities) to help inform those policy deliberations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98064/
Long-Term Unemployment and Recessions
This report discusses the recession that began in the United States in December 2007 and officially ended in June 2009 and how this recession affected employment rates. This report analyzes the trend in long-term unemployment over the postwar period and offers explanations for its unusually high incidence during the most recent postwar recession. It compares the individual, job, and household characteristics of the long-term unemployed during the latest recession (2007-2009) with the long-term unemployed at the end of the two previous recessions (1990-1991 and 2001). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31356/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. This report also discusses several concerns related to MCC implementation, including the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31405/
Federal Reserve: Unconventional Monetary Policy Options
This report discusses the Federal Reserve (Fed) unconventional policies in an attempt to reduced the federal funds rate and revive the economy. The Fed has also changed its communication policies since rates reached the zero bound. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276894/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. This report also discusses several concerns related to MCC implementation, including the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40193/
Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System
This report examines the structure and operations of the major components of the Federal Reserve System and provides an overview of congressional oversight activities. The report identifies the provisions of P.L. 111-203 (the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act) that affect the structure and operations of the system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29727/
Evaluating the Current Stance of Monetary Policy Using a Taylor Rule
Oversight of the Federal Reserve's (Fed's) monetary policy decisions rests with Congress. But oversight is encumbered by the absence of a straightforward relationship between interest rates and economic performance. Further, the Fed's policy decisions are discretionary, meaning there is no objective, transparent “yardstick” for evaluating their decisions. A simple rule of thumb guide to monetary policy decisions called a “Taylor rule” is an intuitive way to judge actual policy against some objective, albeit simplistic, ideal. Taylor rules prescribe a federal funds target based on inflation and the output gap (i.e., the difference between actual gross domestic product [GDP] and potential GDP) and can be adjusted to reflect a variety of policy goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87374/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012
President Obama has requested $147.911 billion for research and development (R&D) in FY2012, a $772 million (0.5%) increase from the FY2010 actual R&D funding level of $147.139 billion. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. Low or negative growth in the overall R&D investment may require movement of resources across disciplines, programs, or agencies to address priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87174/
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report provides background on China's economic rise, describes its current economic structure, identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth, and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276930/
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
This report provides a background of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) financial crisis and the issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99122/
Derivatives Regulation in the 111th Congress
This report summarizes derivatives legislation that was considered but not enacted by the 111th Congress, and it provides background on the derivatives market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103061/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that demonstrate positive performance in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. MCC issues include the level of funding to support MCC programs, the impact of budget reductions on MCC programs, the rate of program implementation, the results of MCC compacts, and procurement and corruption concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85448/
What if the National Debt Were Eliminated? Some Economic Consequences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1429/
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act (P.L. 106-554)
The last act of the 106th Congress was to pass an omnibus bill that included the Commodity Futures Modernization Act (H.R. 5660; P.L. 106-554), the most significant amendments to the regulation of derivatives trading in 25 years. Derivative financial instruments are those that gain or lose value as some underlying rate, price, or other economic variable changes. The 106th Congress approved an overhaul of derivatives regulation which codified the unregulated status of certain derivatives, permitted the exemption of other currently-regulated contracts from oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), and permitted the trading of a new kind of contract: a futures contract/security hybrid based on the stocks of individual corporation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10195/
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
This report provides a background of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) financial crisis and the issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228108/
Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy
A look at how Congress' has been proactive in helping the economy recover after the 2008-2009 recession, as well as how it can help to keep recessions at bay in the future. Issues regards to this are typical post-war recessions, insufficient pace of private spending, and long-term debt problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86564/
The "Fiscal Cliff": Macroeconomic Consequences of Tax Increases and Spending Cuts
Report regarding the fiscal cliff, which is a set of tax increases and spending cuts that would substantially reduce the deficit in 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227799/
What if the National Debt Were Eliminated? Some Economic Consequences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1093/
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major "reinvention" early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1611/
Uncertainty in Budget Projections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1617/
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1610/
Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules
On December 7, 1998, federal banking regulators proposed regulations that would have required banks and thrifts to develop formal policies and procedures to identify unusual transactions in customers’ accounts to report as suspicious activity in conjunction with the federal laws outlawing money laundering. Although there were varied proposals before the 106th Congress on the issue, no legislation was enacted. The issue likeliest to command attention in the 107th Congress is international money laundering. There have been recent instances in which banking regulators imposed corrective action, comparable to the Know Your Customer requirements, on several international banking institutions after unearthing potential money laundering activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1618/
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: A Brief Overview and Assessment After Five Years
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the formal review mechanism thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1613/
Insurance Exclusion Clauses: Excluding War Risks and Terror Risks from Insurance Contracts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1716/
Paying Off the National Debt: Some Intergenerational Consequences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1100/
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10021/
Derivatives Regulation: Legislation in the 106th Congress
The 106th Congress is considering a general overhaul of derivatives regulation. Pending legislation would codify the unregulated status of certain derivatives, exempt many other currently-regulated contracts from oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and permit the trading of a new kind of contract: a futures contract based on the stock of an individual corporation. Derivatives legislation has been reported out of committee in both House and Senate. This report analyzes this legislation in the 106th Congress, and will be updated as developments warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1223/
China's Economic Conditions
Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1979, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing economies. Many economists speculate that China could become the world's largest exporter within the next few years and the largest economy within a few decades, provided that the government is able to continue and deepen economic reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. China's economy continues to be a concern to many U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China's economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on various U.S. industries. This report explores both sides of this issue in detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10309/
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation
This report sketches issues underlying broader use of cost-benefit analysis. It focuses on cost-benefit as one of several related frameworks for assessing regulatory actions or policies. Cost-benefit is the broadest of these frameworks, which also include impact assessment, risk assessment, and cost-effectiveness. Which analytical framework is appropriate depends on the regulatory context. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs188/
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1005/
South Korea's Economy and Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs107/
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1114/
Low Power FM Radio Service: Regulatory and Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1984/
Renewal Communities and New Markets Initiatives: Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1150/
Monetary Policy: Recent Changes and Current Conditions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8599/
The North Korean Economy: Background and Policy Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8684/
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?
A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9033/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5571/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5570/