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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4348/
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4349/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
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Tax Cuts and Economic Stimulus: How Effective Are the Alternatives?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3454/
America's Growing Current Account Deficit: Its Cause and What It Means for the Economy
This report discusses the reasons for the U.S. current account deficit, popularly known as the trade deficit, and which is on the rise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3535/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
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U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7134/
Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System
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U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7083/
The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving
Raising the share of income we save is a frequent aim of public policy. That may be particularly apparent in debates about the size of the federal budget deficit, but concerns about the low household saving rate have also prompted policymakers to consider ways to encourage individuals to save more. How much individuals save will directly affect their future economic well-being, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the source of saving — be it households, business, or government — makes no difference. This report presents standard economic analysis of the macroeconomic effects of raising saving. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7912/
The “Jobless Recovery” From the 2001 Recession: A Comparison to Earlier Recoveries and Possible Explanations
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U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
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Long-Term Growth of the U.S. Economy: Significance, Determinants, and Policy
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U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3527/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3528/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
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U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3526/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7082/
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
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Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3972/
Economic Development Administration: Reauthorization and Funding Issues in the 112th Congress
The 112th Congress may consider legislation to reauthorize and amend the Public Works and Economic Development Act (PWEDA), whose statutory authority expired on September 30, 2008. As part of those deliberations, Congress may consider a number of changes in the structure of Economic Development Administration (EDA) assistance programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86557/
Changing the Federal Reserve's Mandate: An Economic Analysis
This report discusses a number of implementation issues surrounding an inflation target. These include what rate of inflation to target, what inflation measure to use, whether to set a point target or range, and what penalties to impose if a target is missed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86574/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122321/
Changing the Federal Reserve's Mandate: An Economic Analysis
This report discusses a number of implementation issues surrounding an economic inflation target. These include what rate of inflation to target, what inflation measure to use, whether to set a point target or range, and what penalties to impose if a target is missed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103136/
Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Expensing Allowances: Current Law, Legislative Proposals in the 113th Congress, and Economic Effects
This report examines the current status, legislative history, and main economic effects (including their efficacy as an economic stimulus tool) of the Section 179 and bonus depreciation allowances. It also identifies legislative initiatives in the 113th Congress to modify either allowance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287899/
Federal Reserve: Oversight and Disclosure Issues
The report discusses recently-enacted legislation and legislation introduced in the 113th Congress related to the Federal Reserve (Fed). It also provides information about the potential impact of greater oversight and disclosure on the Fed's independence and its ability to achieve its macroeconomic and financial stability goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287890/
S. 2262, Shaheen-Portman Bill 2014: Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act
This report reviews the provisions of S. 2262, highlights the most controversial bill provision, and identifies potential amendments to the bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287907/
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
This report provides a background of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) financial crisis and the issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267876/
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
This report discusses economic effects of the Federal Reserve's monetary policy, monetary policy vs. fiscal policy, the current stance of monetary policy given the financial crisis, and Congressional oversight and disclosure on the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98039/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. It also discusses several concerns related to MCC implementation, including the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306528/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. This report also discusses several concerns related to MCC implementation, including the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93984/
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. It also discusses several concerns related to MCC implementation, including the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332869/
Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy
This report looks at how Congress has been proactive in helping the economy recover after the 2008-2009 recession, as well as how it can help to keep recessions at bay in the future. Issues include typical post-war recessions, insufficient pace of private spending, and the long-term debt problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96676/
The Special Inspector General for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (SIG TARP)
This report discusses the Special Inspector General provisions in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, H.R. 1424, which was enacted as P.L. 110-343 on October 3, 2008. This Act created a Special Inspector General (SIG) for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). This report will compare the duties and authorities of the SIG TARP to those of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) and the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR), as well as statutory IGs under the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended (IG Act). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10817/
Exchange Rates: The Dollar in International Markets
Mainstream economic theory suggests that U.S. budget deficit was the main cause of the dollar appreciation between 1980 and early 1985. The high budget deficit forced the U.S. Government to compete against the private sector for available savings, raising interest rates in the United States. In response, net capital inflows to the United States increased, the demand for dollars on the foreign exchange market went up, and the dollar appreciated. Restrictive budgets and loose monetary policies abroad, both of which kept interest rates low abroad, also contributed to the dollar’s appreciation on over this period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8427/
Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs98/
Canada's Financial System: An Overview
This report discusses the relative stability of Canada's financial system in comparison to the financial systems of other nations around the globe that are suffering from the current financial crisis. This report presents an overview of Canada's financial system and its supervisory framework and draws some distinctions between that system and the current U.S. framework. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26178/
Saving Rates in the United States: Calculation and Comparison
The amount of money saved has important economic consequences. Nationally, the amount of saving affects how much can be invested and ultimately the size of the capital stock. This report explains how national saving is measured, presents recent estimates of saving rates in the United States, and, for comparison, provides those of other major industrial countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31445/
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
This report discusses how the Federal Reserve (Fed) handles monetary policy, including background information about the execution of monetary policy, the recent and current stance of monetary policy, and current legislation and Congressional oversight that would affect the Fed's practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96734/
Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects
This report provides a brief overview of the higher education tax benefits that are currently available to students and their families. The report contrasts higher education tax benefits with traditional student aid, presents a brief history of higher education tax policy over the past 60 years, summarizes key features of the available tax benefits, and provides JCT estimates of revenue losses resulting from individual tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96712/
Financial Regulatory Reform: Analysis of the Consumer Financial Protection Agency (CFPA) as Proposed by the Obama Administration and H.R. 3126
This report provides a brief summary of the President's Consumer Financial Protection Agency Act of 2009 (the CPFA Act or the Act) and delineates some of the substantive differences between it and H.R. 3126, as introduced. It then analyzes some of the policy implications of the proposal, focusing on the separation of safety and soundness regulation from consumer protection, financial innovation, and the scope of regulation. The report then raises some questions regarding state law preemption, sources of funding, and rule-making procedures that the Act does not fully answer. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26183/
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit
The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time. Some Members of Congress and other observers have grown concerned over the magnitude of the U.S. merchandise trade deficit and the associated increase in U.S. dollar-denominated assets owned by foreigners. This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33053/
Job Growth During the Recovery
Congress in recent years passed a number of bills intended in part to jump-start a recovery in the labor market from the recession that began in December 2007. Policymakers are interested in how employment has responded to stimulus measures to determine how effective the legislation has been and to decide whether additional job creation legislation is warranted. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29610/
The Federal Debt: An Analysis of Movements from World War II to the Present
This report will define the measures of debt, discuss the reasons why debt levels change, and use historical examples to illustrate the factors causing debt movements over the last seven decades. Recent policies that have affected the budgetary outlook and the debt will also be discussed. Finally, this report will examine the long-term U.S. debt outlook and implications of rising federal debt levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29718/
The Bush Tax Cuts and the Economy
The George W. Bush Administration enacted a series of tax cuts through the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003. This report examines these tax cuts within the context of the current and long-term economic environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31367/
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
This report discusses how the Federal Reserve (Fed) handles monetary policy, including background information about the execution of monetary policy, the recent and current stance of monetary policy, and current legislation and Congressional oversight that would affect the Fed's practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272078/
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit
This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272094/
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
The Federal Reserve (Fed) defines monetary policy as the actions it undertakes to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Since the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and growth, monetary policy can also be defined to include the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Fed that influence how the future is perceived. In addition, the Fed acts as a “lender of last resort” to the nation's financial system, meaning that it ensures continued smooth functioning of financial intermediation by providing financial markets with adequate liquidity. This role has become of great importance following the onset of the recent financial crisis. Congress has delegated responsibility for monetary policy to the Fed, but retains oversight responsibilities to ensure that the Fed is adhering to its statutory mandate “maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.” This report looks at the background and influences of current legislation that would affect the Fed's practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87249/
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status
This report provides a brief outline of the programs created under the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), changes made by Congress, and a summary of the current status and estimated costs of the program. It also provides an Appendix that contains detailed discussions of the individual TARP programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276901/
Economic Growth and the Unemployment Rate
Issues concerning and which can be influenced by Congress regarding unemployment rates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85394/