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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Date: November 9, 2009
Creator: Walker Klarman, Kim & Jennings, Julie
Description: This report presents a list of authoritative resources designed to assist in responding to a broad range of questions and concerns about the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), P.L. 111-5. Links to the full text of the act, Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates, White House fact sheets, and federal, state, and municipal government websites are included, along with other useful information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Date: September 10, 2009
Creator: Walker Klarman, Kim & Jennings, Julie
Description: This report presents a list of authoritative resources designed to assist in responding to a broad range of questions and concerns about the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), P.L. 111-5. Links to the full text of the act, Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates, White House fact sheets, and federal, state, and municipal government websites are included, along with other useful information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Date: April 10, 2009
Creator: Walker Klarman, Kim & Jennings, Julie
Description: This report presents a list of authoritative resources designed to assist in responding to a broad range of questions and concerns about the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), P.L. 111-5. Links to the full text of the act, Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates, White House fact sheets, and federal, state, and municipal government websites are included, along with other useful information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to Fix Electricity Rates and Charges and to Require Refund Payments by a Public Utility

Authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to Fix Electricity Rates and Charges and to Require Refund Payments by a Public Utility

Date: January 9, 2001
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V
Description: Sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act concern rates and charges collected by a public utility in transmitting or selling electric energy in interstate commerce. These rates and charges are required to be just and reasonable. States retain jurisdiction over facilities for generation, distribution, or transmission of electric energy in intrastate commerce. The Commission has the authority to determine that an existing rate is unjust or unreasonable and set a new rate. In certain situations Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) may have authority to refund amounts paid in excess of just and reasonable rates. Case law is useful in determining when such a situation may exist.
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Average Farm Subsidy Payments, by State, 2002

Average Farm Subsidy Payments, by State, 2002

Date: September 16, 2004
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: The U.S. Department of Agriculture makes direct subsidy payments through the Commodity Credit Corporation to farmers for commodity price and income support, certain conservation and environmental activities, and some disaster losses. In 2002, these direct farm subsidy payments amounted to $12.151 billion. This report examines the distribution of these payments among states, calculates the average size of payments going to recipient farms in each state, and distinguishes between payments received by farm operators and landlords. This information is intended to aid in policy debates about subsidizing some farms but not others, changing per-person payment limits, and the altering eligibility rules for landlords to receive payments.
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Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules

Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules

Date: August 31, 2001
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: On December 7, 1998, federal banking regulators proposed regulations that would have required banks and thrifts to develop formal policies and procedures to identify unusual transactions in customers’ accounts to report as suspicious activity in conjunction with the federal laws outlawing money laundering. Although there were varied proposals before the 106th Congress on the issue, no legislation was enacted. The issue likeliest to command attention in the 107th Congress is international money laundering. There have been recent instances in which banking regulators imposed corrective action, comparable to the Know Your Customer requirements, on several international banking institutions after unearthing potential money laundering activity.
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Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report discusses the Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns.
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Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Discount Rate for the Corps of Engineers' Water Resource Projects: Theory and Practice

Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Discount Rate for the Corps of Engineers' Water Resource Projects: Theory and Practice

Date: June 23, 2003
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: Construction of large water resource projects, such as those of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), can be controversial because they involve trade-offs among various river uses, and between current and future generations. Pursuant to federal water project planning guidelines, the Corps weighs these trade-offs using benefit-cost analysis. If its analysis shows that a project’s national economic development (NED) benefits exceed its NED costs, the Corps seeks project authorization from Congress. Congress authorizes the Corps to construct some of these large water projects through (usually) biennial Water Resource Development Acts. Since the Corps rarely recommends a project that does not have a benefit-cost ratio greater than 1.0, this report describes the decisions that influence this ratio, with a focus on the role of the discount rate.
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Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Date: July 14, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report includes background information on Bolivia's political unrest, particularly regarding instability in shifting leaderships, economic situation, and relations with the United States.
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Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report includes background information on Bolivia’s political unrest, economic situation, and relations with the United States. In the past few years, Bolivia has experienced extreme political unrest resulting in the country having six presidents since 2001. Under policies of recently-elected leftist-leaning President Evo Morales, Bolivia's relations with neighboring countries, foreign investors, and the United States have been complicated. For some 20 years, U.S. interest in Bolivia has centered on its role as a coca producer and its relationship to Colombia and Peru, the two other major coca- and cocaine-producing countries in the Andes. U.S.-Bolivian relations have become tense in 2006 in the wake of the Morales government's questionable commitment to combating illegal drugs, increasing ties with Venezuela and Cuba, and the nationalization measure.
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Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report includes background information on Bolivia's political unrest, particularly regarding instability in shifting leaderships, economic situation, and relations with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease"): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease"): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Date: October 13, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Lister, Sarah A
Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Lister, Sarah A & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events

Date: November 8, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report provides a chronology of selected events leading up to and following the discoveries of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in North America. These are primarily regulatory, legal, and congressional developments that are frequently referenced in the ongoing policy debate. The chronology does not contain entries for the introduction of the many BSE-related bills introduced into this or previous Congresses, except for those in recent years where committee or floor action has occurred. This report, which will be updated if significant developments ensue, is intended to be used alongside other CRS reports that provide more background and context for the BSE policy debate, and that cover many specific legislative proposals.
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease):  Agricultural Issues for Congress

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease): Agricultural Issues for Congress

Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report presents the background and analysis of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including the definition. It also discusses the BSE economic and trade implications as well as selected issues for Congress.
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Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: September 26, 2002
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: July 25, 2002
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: April 4, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
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Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: January 21, 2004
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: October 10, 2003
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: May 5, 2003
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: March 18, 2003
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: March 29, 2004
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department