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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Weiss, N. E. & Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted.
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ERISA’s Impact on Medical Malpractice and Negligence Claims Against Managed Care Plans

ERISA’s Impact on Medical Malpractice and Negligence Claims Against Managed Care Plans

Date: February 21, 2008
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report examines the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), which provides a comprehensive federal scheme for the regulation of employee pension and welfare benefit plans offered by employers. While ERISA does not require an employer to offer pension and welfare benefits, it does mandate compliance with its provisions if such benefits are offered. Congress enacted ERISA to eliminate the conflicting and inconsistent regulation of pension and employee welfare benefit plans by state laws. The provisions at issue in the preemption debate are sections 502(a) and 514(a) of ERISA.
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North Korea: Economic Sanctions

North Korea: Economic Sanctions

Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: U.S. economic sanctions are imposed against North Korea for five primary reasons: (1) North Korea is seen as posing a threat to U.S. national security; (2) North Korea is designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor or supporter of international terrorism; (3) North Korea is a Marxist-Leninist state, with a Communist government; (4) North Korea has been found by the State Department to have engaged in proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) North Korea has been found by the President to have detonated a nuclear explosive device. This paper explains the U.S. economic sanctions currently in place, and summarizes recent events as they relate to the potential application of additional restrictions.
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The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: October 9, 2009
Creator: Austin, D. A. & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, a historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
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Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: April 30, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Description: Monetary policy can be defined as any policy relating to the supply of money. Since the agency concerned with the supply of money is the nation’s central bank, the Federal Reserve, monetary policy can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on national spending. This report discusses current issues regarding monetary policy.
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Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Date: July 21, 2004
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: This report discusses monetary policy, which can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on aggregate demand or national spending.
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Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Date: May 29, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report discusses broadband Internet, examining what it is and the various technologies that allow for its transmission. Broadband or high-speed Internet access is provided by technologies that give users the ability to send and receive data at volumes and speeds far greater than access over traditional telephone lines; it also provides a continuous, "always on" connection (no need to dial-up) and a "two-way" capability, that is, the ability to both receive (download) and transmit (upload) data at high speeds.
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Lister, Sarah A & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Rule

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Rule

Date: February 4, 2005
Creator: Redhead, C. S.
Description: This report discuses the HIPAA privacy rule, which gives patients the right of access to their medical information and prohibits health plans and health care providers from using or disclosing individually identifiable health information without a patient’s written authorization except as expressly permitted or required by the rule.
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Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
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Emergency Economic Stabilization Act: Preliminary Analysis of Oversight Provisions

Emergency Economic Stabilization Act: Preliminary Analysis of Oversight Provisions

Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report discusses the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, which provides authority for the Secretary of the Treasury to purchase and insure "troubled assets" to provide stability and prevent disruption in the economy and financial system.
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Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report examines Turkmenistan's halting economic and political reforms under the authoritarian leadership of President Saparmurad Niyazov. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance, including support for grassroots democratization and advocacy for human rights, and provides basic facts and biographical information.
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Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report describes the various reporting requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) and is organized according to the entities required to prepare and submit the reports. The report also provides some concluding observations regarding those requirements.
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Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Murphy, Edward V.; Weiss, N. Eric & Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Market Intervention

Financial Market Intervention

Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: Murphy, Edward V. & Webel, Baird
Description: This report provides answers to some frequently asked questions concerning ongoing financial disruptions and the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). It also summarizes legislation in the 111th Congress such as H.R. 384, the TARP Reform and Accountability Act of 2009 and H.R. 703, "Promoting Bank Liquidity and Lending Through Deposit Insurance, Hope for Homeowners, and other Enhancements."
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The U.S. Financial Crisis: The Global Dimension with Implications for U.S. Policy

The U.S. Financial Crisis: The Global Dimension with Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.; Weiss, Martin A.; Jackson, James K.; Dolven, Ben; Morrison, Wayne M.; Cooper, William H. et al.
Description: This report examines the global ramifications of the financial crisis, which exposed fundamental weaknesses in financial systems worldwide, and despite coordinated easing of monetary policy by governments and trillions of dollars in intervention by governments and the International Monetary Fund, the crisis continues.
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Russia's Economic Performance and Policies and Their Implications for the United States

Russia's Economic Performance and Policies and Their Implications for the United States

Date: November 5, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the Russian economy, which has grown impressively since 1999 and, by some measures, has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The improvement in the Russian economy is arguably a factor in the boldness with which the Putin leadership has reasserted Russia's status as a world power.
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The Cost of Government Financial Interventions, Past and Present

The Cost of Government Financial Interventions, Past and Present

Date: January 8, 2009
Creator: Webel, Baird; Labonte, Marc & Weiss, N. E.
Description: The results of previous government financial interventions are summarized in this report. In response to ongoing financial turmoil that began in the subprime mortgage-backed securities market, the federal government has intervened with private corporations on a large scale and in an ad hoc manner three times from the beginning of 2008 through September 19, 2008.
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Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report includes background information on Bolivia's political unrest, particularly regarding instability in shifting leaderships, economic situation, and relations with the United States.
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Inequality in the Distribution of Income: Trends and International Comparisons

Inequality in the Distribution of Income: Trends and International Comparisons

Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Description: This report examines the distribution of income in the United States, including factors that may help explain it, how it has changed over time, and how it compares with those of other countries.
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Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Makinen, Gail E.
Description: This report contains information about the economy including an overview of the current economic conditions, fiscal and monetary policies, forecasts for 2008-2009, and other topics related to economic growth.
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Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls

Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses how deficit finance can help governments manage their economies and how large and persistent deficits can lead to severe economic problems.
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The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides a background on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy and shares expertise and exchanges with more than 70 developing and emerging economies.
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