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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards

Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards

Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The extent to which emissions from motor vehicles and the amount of sulfur in commercial gasoline should be regulated has become a controversial issue. The EPA is proposing national limits on gasoline sulfur levels which would become effective in 2004. This report provides background information on the regulation of vehicle emissions in the United States, analyzes key elements of the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Tier 2 proposal, summarizes major views on the proposal that have been expressed by the automobile industry, the oil refining industry, and some environmental organizations, and discusses relevant legislative activity in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues

Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues

Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: This report provides background information on federal emission standards for motor vehicles under the Clean Air Act and stricter standards originally developed to address the severity of air quality problems in California, explains the low emission standards and flexible compliance mechanisms to which states and manufacturers have voluntarily agreed under the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program, discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) estimates of the program's air quality benefits and costs, and examines regulatory issues related to its implementation including sulfur levels in gasoline and the relative stringency of emission standards for light trucks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?

Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?

Date: June 15, 1998
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China in Transition: Changing Conditions and Implications for U.S. Interests

China in Transition: Changing Conditions and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: December 20, 1993
Creator: Sutter, Robert G; Kan, Shirley A & Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion

China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion

Date: January 15, 1991
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry; Kan, Shirley A & Sutter, Robert G
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act and TMDLs

Clean Water Act and TMDLs

Date: September 11, 1997
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?

Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?

Date: May 5, 1994
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation

Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation

Date: June 28, 1995
Creator: Moore, John L
Description: This report sketches issues underlying broader use of cost-benefit analysis. It focuses on cost-benefit as one of several related frameworks for assessing regulatory actions or policies. Cost-benefit is the broadest of these frameworks, which also include impact assessment, risk assessment, and cost-effectiveness. Which analytical framework is appropriate depends on the regulatory context.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Date: June 5, 1998
Creator: Makinen, Gail
Description: This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues

The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues

Date: November 9, 1992
Creator: Vogt, Donna U
Description: Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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