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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2005
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease"): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease"): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Date: October 13, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Lister, Sarah A
Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events

Date: November 8, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report provides a chronology of selected events leading up to and following the discoveries of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in North America. These are primarily regulatory, legal, and congressional developments that are frequently referenced in the ongoing policy debate. The chronology does not contain entries for the introduction of the many BSE-related bills introduced into this or previous Congresses, except for those in recent years where committee or floor action has occurred. This report, which will be updated if significant developments ensue, is intended to be used alongside other CRS reports that provide more background and context for the BSE policy debate, and that cover many specific legislative proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease):  Agricultural Issues for Congress

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease): Agricultural Issues for Congress

Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report presents the background and analysis of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including the definition. It also discusses the BSE economic and trade implications as well as selected issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Access: Background and Issues

Date: April 4, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: From a public policy perspective, the goals are to ensure that broadband deployment is timely, that industry competes fairly, and that service is provided to all sectors and geographical locations of American society. The federal government -- through Congress and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- is seeking to ensure fair competition among the players so that broadband will be available and affordable in a timely manner to all Americans who want it. While the FCC's position is not to intervene at this time, some assert that legislation is necessary to ensure fair competition and timely broadband deployment. One proposal would ease certain legal restrictions and requirements, imposed by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, on incumbent telephone companies who provide high speed data (broadband) access. Another proposal would compel cable companies to provide "open access" to competing Internet service providers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative: An Overview

The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative: An Overview

Date: February 15, 2005
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M
Description: The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative (BMENA) is a multilateral development and reform plan aimed at fostering economic and political liberalization in a wide geographic area of Arab and non-Arab Muslim countries. In December 2004, the first BMENA meeting took place in Rabat, Morocco and was called the “Forum for the Future.”At the forum, foreign ministers and finance ministers of the countries in the region stretching from Morocco to Pakistan as well as from the countries of the G8 pledged to create several new development programs and committed $60 million to a regional fund for business development. Critics of BMENA contend that the initiative focuses too heavily on economic issues instead of political reform and does little to strengthen non-governmental organizations and civil society groups in Arab and non- Arab Muslim countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Deficit and the Trade Deficit: What Is Their Relationship?

The Budget Deficit and the Trade Deficit: What Is Their Relationship?

Date: March 24, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc & makinen, gail
Description: During the last half of the 1990s, real gross domestic investment rose as a fraction of real GDP. This resulted from the rise in U.S. productivity and the related rise in the real yield on U.S. assets. This drew additional private capital from abroad. If the twin deficits theory is correct, it has an adverse implication for the efficacy of fiscal policy as a stimulus tool. It suggests that in an environment of highly mobile international capital flows the effect of policy induced increases in the structural budget deficit (e.g., tax cuts) on short-run economic growth would be largely offset by increases in the trade deficit. The experience during both the 1980s and 1990s demonstrates that a large and growing trade deficit need not be an impediment to overall job creation even though it may have had an effect on the type of jobs that were created since it affected the composition of U.S. output.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
California's San Joaquin Valley: A Region in Transition

California's San Joaquin Valley: A Region in Transition

Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report analyzes the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) counties and statistically documents the basis of current socioeconomic conditions. The report further explores the extent to which the SJV shares similarities with and differs from the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) area and a 68- county Central Appalachian subregion which contains some of the most economically distressed counties in Appalachia. The report also examines the role of federal expenditures in the cities and counties of the SJV. In addition to examining socioeconomic conditions in the SJV, the report provides analysis of water supply and quality issues especially those concerning agriculture, air quality concerns, and rail and shipping issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Economic Conditions

China's Economic Conditions

Date: July 25, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Economic Conditions

China's Economic Conditions

Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Economic Conditions

China's Economic Conditions

Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act of 2005 (CURIA)

Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act of 2005 (CURIA)

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: On May 12, 2005, regulatory modernization legislation for credit unions was introduced as H.R. 2317. The three titles of the Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act (CURIA) would provide regulatory changes requested by credit union industry advocates. These changes would provide supervisory flexibility to the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), the federal regulator for the credit union industry, enhance the ability of credit unions to provide loans to their members, and ease credit union regulatory burdens.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Date: August 22, 2005
Creator: Makinen, Gail
Description: This report contains information regarding the Current Economic Conditions, Recent Macroeconomic Developments, Posture of Monetary and Fiscal Policy, Summary of Current Developments, Sources of GDP Growth, Economic Forecasts 2001, and Promotion of Economic Growth. The report also presents statistics regarding the Growth Rate of Real GDP v. Final Sales, Civilian Unemployment Rate, Rate of Change in the Consumer Price Index, Rate of Change in the GDP Deflators, Rate of Change in Labor Costs, U.S. Foreign Trade Deficit, Alternative Measures of Fiscal Policy, The Growth Rates of the Monetary Aggregates, etc.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Date: June 20, 2005
Creator: Makinen, Gail
Description: This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving

The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving

Date: October 4, 2005
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: Raising the share of income we save is a frequent aim of public policy. That may be particularly apparent in debates about the size of the federal budget deficit, but concerns about the low household saving rate have also prompted policymakers to consider ways to encourage individuals to save more. How much individuals save will directly affect their future economic well-being, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the source of saving — be it households, business, or government — makes no difference. This report presents standard economic analysis of the macroeconomic effects of raising saving.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Outsourcing: Economic Implications and Policy Responses

Foreign Outsourcing: Economic Implications and Policy Responses

Date: June 21, 2005
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hydropower Licenses and Alternative Licensing Conditions in H.R. 6, 109th Congress

Hydropower Licenses and Alternative Licensing Conditions in H.R. 6, 109th Congress

Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Limiting Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Portfolio Size

Limiting Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Portfolio Size

Date: October 21, 2005
Creator: Weiss, Eric
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Long-Term Growth of the U.S. Economy: Significance, Determinants, and Policy

Long-Term Growth of the U.S. Economy: Significance, Determinants, and Policy

Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina

The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina

Date: September 13, 2005
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Date: January 13, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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