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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a Special Session
This report briefly discusses the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), which has convened in New York for a special session on "The World Drug Problem." It is the third time the UNGA will convene such a session on global drug issues. Previous special sessions on drugs were held in 1990 and 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855909/
The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (S. 524): Comparison of Senate- and House-Passed Versions
This report discusses selected differences and similarities between the Senate- and House-passed versions of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (CARA; S. 524), which aims to address the problem of opioid addiction in the United States. The two versions of the bill differ substantially. The scope of the differences may be illustrated by their structures: The Senate bill has 28 sections organized in 8 titles, whereas the House bill has 69 sections organized in 18 titles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855931/
Active Opioid Legislation in the House: In Brief
This report briefly summarizes opioid-related bills that were considered during "Opioid Week" (the week of May 9, 2016) The summaries in this report may be useful illustrations of the range of approaches Members of Congress have proposed to address the problem of opioid addiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855953/
The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a Special Session
This report briefly discusses the United Nations General Assembly's (UNGA) 2016 special session on "The World Drug Problem." It is the third time the UNGA will convene such a session on global drug issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847732/
War On Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments
This report covers significant legislative and oversight activities of the 108th Congress that concern domestic law enforcement aspects of federal anti-drug policy. It also includes an overview of significant executive branch actions and other current developments of likely interest to the congressional audience that follows this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824754/
War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign
This report discusses the authorization of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a multi-media federal program to persuade America's youth not to use drugs, which expired at the end of FY2002. H.R. 2829 (passed by the House on March 13, 2006) and S. 2560 (reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee on May 25, 2006) would reauthorize the media campaign, along with the other programs run by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) during FY2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824468/
Drug Control: International Policy and Approaches
This report discusses various U.S. international narcotics policy approaches meant to achieve two main goals: to reduce the supply of illicit narcotics flowing into the United States, and to reduce the amount of illicit narcotics cultivated, processed, and consumed worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824496/
Methamphetamine: Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress
This report provides a brief overview of illicit methamphetamine (MA) abuse, production, trafficking, the federal methamphetamine-specific programs, and anti-MA legislation introduced in the 109th Congress. MA abuse has implications for public health, child welfare, crime and public safety, border security, and international relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824521/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report begins with a brief discussion of security challenges in Mexico and Mexico's security strategy. It then provides information on congressional funding and oversight of the Mérida Initiative, with details about each of the program's four pillars. The report concludes by raising policy issues that Congress may wish to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824428/
War on Drugs: Reauthorization of the Office of National Drug Control Policy
This report discusses the Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 2005 , which would reauthorize ONDCP for five years, through FY2010, and authorize funding in specific annual amounts for the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Program, the media campaign, a Southwest Border violence study, and several anti-methamphetamine initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821566/
Sentencing Levels for Crack and Powder Cocaine: Kimbrough v. United States and the Impact of United States v. Booker
This report examines the crack/powder cocaine sentencing disparity issue and potential legislative solutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822689/
International Drug Control Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. international drug control policy. It describes major international counternarcotics initiatives and evaluates the broad array of U.S. drug control policy tools currently in use. The report also considers alternative counterdrug policy approaches to current initiatives and raises several counterdrug policy issues and considerations for policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822414/
A Low Carbon Fuel Standard: State and Federal Legislation and Regulations
This report analyzes the draft California standards, and discusses how those standards might work. Next, the report analyzes federal Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) legislation proposed in the 110th Congress. Finally, the report analyzes what effects an LCFS might have on state and national fuel supplies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795564/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
This report discusses the approved reauthorization legislation to extend and amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795734/
International Drug Control Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. international drug control policy. It describes major international counternarcotics initiatives and evaluates the broad array of U.S. drug control policy tools currently in use. The report also considers alternative counterdrug policy approaches to current initiatives and raises several counterdrug policy issues and considerations for policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743397/
Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy
This report provides current statistical information, profiles the Afghanistan narcotics trade's participants, explores linkages between narcotics, insecurity, and corruption, and reviews U.S. and international policy responses since late 2001. The report also considers ongoing policy debates regarding the counternarcotics role of coalition military forces, poppy eradication, alternative livelihoods, and funding issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689325/
Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy
This report provides current statistical information, profiles the Afghanistan narcotics trade's participants, explores linkages between narcotics, insecurity, and corruption, and reviews U.S. and international policy responses since late 2001. The report also considers ongoing policy debates regarding the counternarcotics role of coalition military forces, poppy eradication, alternative livelihoods, and funding issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689247/
Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy
This report provides current statistical information, profiles the Afghanistan narcotics trade's participants, explores linkages between narcotics, insecurity, and corruption, and reviews U.S. and international policy responses since late 2001. The report also considers ongoing policy debates regarding the counternarcotics role of coalition military forces, poppy eradication, alternative livelihoods, and funding issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689489/
ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues
This report outlines the various aspects of the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), including significant dates and modifications. The ATPA extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. The purpose of ATPA is to promote economic growth in the Andean region and to encourage a shift away from dependence on illegal drugs by supporting legitimate economic activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689411/
Federal Domestic Illegal Drug Enforcement Efforts: Are They Working?
This report examines the federal drug enforcement data reported annually by key agencies charged with enforcing federal drug control laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627141/
Federal Domestic Illegal Drug Enforcement Efforts: Are They Working?
This report examines the federal drug enforcement data reported annually by key agencies charged with enforcing federal drug control laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627115/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report begins with a brief discussion of security challenges in Mexico and Mexico's security strategy. It then provides updated information on congressional funding and oversight of the Mérida Initiative before delving into its four pillars. The report concludes by raising policy issues that Congress may wish to consider as it continues to fund and oversee the Mérida Initiative and broader U.S.-Mexican security cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627094/
ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues
The Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. The purpose of ATPA is to promote economic growth in the Andean region and to encourage a shift away from dependence on illegal drugs by supporting legitimate economic activities. This report outlines the impact and policy implications of the ATPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505405/
Marijuana: Medical and Retail-- Selected Legal Issues
This report discusses the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as it pertains to marijuana. The CSA outlaws the possession, cultivation, and distribution of marijuana except for authorized research. More than 20 states have regulatory schemes that allow possession, cultivation, and distribution of marijuana for medicinal purposes. The U.S. Constitution's Supremacy Clause preempts any state law that conflicts with federal law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505580/
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits
This report provides an overview of the Fourth Amendment in order to effectively evaluate the constitutionality of laws requiring suspicionless drug tests to receive governmental benefits. It then reviews five Supreme Court decisions that have evaluated these programs. The report concludes with a synthesis of the various factors that likely will be important to a future court's assessment of the constitutionality of these laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503493/
International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses
The global illegal drug trade represents a multi-dimensional challenge that has implications for U.S. national interests as well as the international community. This report discusses U.S. international policy frameworks and approaches in response to the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503293/
Federal Domestic Illegal Drug Enforcement Efforts: Are They Working?
This report examines the federal drug enforcement data reported annually by key agencies charged with enforcing federal drug control laws. This report provides background and an overview of current federal drug control efforts and outcomes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503720/
International Drug Control Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. international drug control policy. It describes major international counternarcotics initiatives and evaluates the broad array of U.S. drug control policy tools currently in use. The report also considers alternative counterdrug policy approaches to current initiatives and raises several counterdrug policy issues and considerations for policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501655/
Federal Cocaine Sentencing Disparity: Sentencing Guidelines, Jurisprudence, and Legislation
This report discusses legislation and several court cases to examine the changing nature of Crack Cocaine penalties in comparison to powder cocaine. Until 2005, the Guidelines were binding on federal courts: the judge had discretion to sentence a defendant, but only within the narrow sentencing range that the Guidelines provided. In its 2005 opinion United States v. Booker, the Supreme Court declared that the Guidelines must be considered advisory rather than mandatory, in order to comply with the Constitution. Instead of being bound by the Guidelines, sentencing courts must treat the federal guidelines as just one of a number of sentencing factors (which include the need to avoid undue sentencing disparity). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491298/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report looks at the funding and Congressional oversight for this the joint U.S.-Mexico effort to curb drug trafficking and violence via the Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491510/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report provides a framework for examining the current status and future prospects for U.S.- Mexican security cooperation. It begins with a brief discussion of the threat that drug trafficking and related crime and violence pose to both nations, followed by an analysis of the evolution of the Mérida Initiative. The report then provides an overview of the Peña Nieto government's security strategy and how it is affecting the Mérida Initiative. The report then examines key aspects of the current U.S.-Mexican security strategy and concludes by raising policy issues that may affect bilateral efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491544/
Governmental Drug Testing Programs: Legal and Constitutional Developments
This report examines the current state of constitutional law on the subject of governmentally mandated drug testing in employment and of students in the public schools, which is followed by a brief review of federal drug-free workplace programs presently in effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462600/
Drug Offenses: Maximum Fines and Terms of Imprisonment for Violation of the Federal Controlled Substances Act and Related Laws
This report is a chart of the maximum fines and terms of imprisonment that may be imposed as a consequence of conviction for violation of the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and other drug supply and drug demand related laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462603/
International Drug Control Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. international drug control policy. It describes major international counternarcotics initiatives and evaluates the broad array of U.S. drug control policy tools currently in use. The report also considers alternative counterdrug policy approaches to international drug control initiatives and raises several counterdrug policy issues and considerations for policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462668/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report provides a framework for examining the current status and future prospects for U.S.- Mexican security cooperation. It begins with a brief discussion of the threat that drug trafficking and related crime and violence pose to both nations, followed by an analysis of the evolution of the Mérida Initiative. The report then provides an overview of the Peña Nieto government's security strategy and how it is affecting the Mérida Initiative. The report then examines key aspects of the current U.S.-Mexican security strategy and concludes by raising policy issues that may affect bilateral efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463170/
Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance
This report describes and compares the drug- and crime-related policy restrictions contained in selected federal programs that provide assistance to low-income individuals and families: the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps), and the three primary federal housing assistance programs (the public housing program, the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program, and the project-based Section 8 rental assistance program). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462398/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report provides a framework for examining the current status and future prospects for U.S.- Mexican security cooperation. It begins with a brief discussion of the threat that drug trafficking and related crime and violence pose to both nations, followed by an analysis of the evolution of the Mérida Initiative. The report then provides an overview of the Peña Nieto government's security strategy and how it is affecting the Mérida Initiative. The report then examines key aspects of the current U.S.-Mexican security strategy and concludes by raising policy issues that may affect bilateral efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332947/
Marijuana: Medical and Retail -- An Abbreviated View of Selected Legal Issues
This report discusses the federal law regarding marijuana that is classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance. The federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) outlaws the possession, cultivation, or distribution of marijuana except for authorized research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284465/
Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs
This report looks at ways that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), which maintain statewide electronic databases of prescriptions dispensed for controlled substances, can help to deter prescription drug misuse. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284447/
Marijuana: Medical and Retail -- Selected Legal Issues
This report discusses state medical marijuana laws that grants registered patients, their doctors, and providers immunity from the consequences of state law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284478/
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits
This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276897/
Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance
Report that describes and compares the drug- and crime-related policy restrictions contained in selected federal programs that provide assistance to low-income individuals and families: the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps), and the three primary federal housing assistance programs (the public housing program, the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program, and the project-based Section 8 rental assistance program). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227746/
International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses
The report provides background information on drug cultivation, drug trafficking and the consequences of drug trade. This report discusses challenges created by the global illegal drug trade, including: undermining political and regional stability, bolstering the role and capabilities of transnational criminal organizations in the drug trade, and the burden caused by drug use an addition on local communities and economic development. In addition, this report discusses U.S. policy efforts to thwart illegal drug trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228078/
Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration
Report discussing the National Drug Control Strategy, the National Drug Control Budget, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy's (ONDCP) evaluation of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation. It also provides an analysis of selected legislative and oversight issues that Congress may consider when debating the reauthorization of ONDCP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227694/
International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses
This report discusses challenges created by the global illegal drug trade, including: undermining political and regional stability, bolstering the role and capabilities of transnational criminal organizations in the drug trade, and the burden caused by drug use an addition on local communities and economic development. In addition, this report discusses U.S. policy efforts to thwart illegal drug trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122324/
ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues
The Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. This report outlines the various aspects of the ATPA, including significant dates and modifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103242/
Federal Crime Control Issues in the 111th Congress
This report aggregates various issues surrounding federal crime control into five broad themes: violent crime control, combating fraud and theft, drug control, sentencing reform, and state and local justice assistance. Within these themes, the report examines more specific issues that confronted the 111th Congress. Issues discussed under the umbrella of violent crime control include hate crimes, gangs, and gun control. Issues related to the federal government's efforts to combat fraud and theft include identity theft and organized retail crime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103065/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report looks at the funding and Congressional oversight for this the joint U.S.-Mexico effort to curb drug trafficking and violence via the Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103105/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report looks at the funding and Congressional oversight for the U.S.-Mexican governments joint effort to curb drug trafficking and violence via the Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103104/
ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues
This report outlines the various aspects of the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), including significant dates and modifications. The ATPA extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. The purpose of ATPA is to promote economic growth in the Andean region and to encourage a shift away from dependence on illegal drugs by supporting legitimate economic activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99129/
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