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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula
This report discusses Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which assists participating states to serve school-age children with disabilities. The state funding formula, which provides a foundation amount based on states’ FY1999 grants and allocates remaining amounts based on states’ shares of school-age children and of school-age poor children, authorizes a maximum allotment per disabled child served of 40% of the national average per pupil expenditure (APPE). Annual appropriations have never been sufficient to provide each state its maximum allotment; in FY2002, states will receive approximately 16.5% of the national APPE per disabled child served. Some advocates for the program have called upon the Congress to fully fund the formula. An estimated $18.2 billion would be required to provide states the maximum allotment allowed per disabled child served in FY2002, about 2.4 times more than the appropriation of $7.5 billion for FY2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1410/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: House and Senate Amendments to Juvenile Justice Legislation
This report discusses legislative issues regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which provides federal funds to the states to assist them in providing an education for children with disabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822450/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446
This report discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA — 20 U.S.C. §1400 et seq.), which is both a grants statute and a civil rights statute. It provides federal funding for the education of children with disabilities and requires, as a condition for the receipt of such funds, the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). The statute also contains detailed due process provisions to ensure the provision of FAPE. Originally enacted in 1975, the act responded to increased awareness of the need to educate children with disabilities, and to judicial decisions requiring that states provide an education for children with disabilities if they provided an education for children without disabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8437/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Medicaid
This report begins with an overview of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It then discusses the distinction made in IDEA between medical services and health services. The report then summarizes the provisions in law that link Medicaid funding to IDEA. Next the report provides an overview of the complexities of Medicaid eligibility and covered services. Following that discussion, the report analyzes possible reasons why Medicaid appears to cover relatively little of IDEA health-related costs. Finally the report outlines possible legislative approaches with respect to Medicaid and IDEA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7575/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Comparison and Analysis of Selected Provisions in H.R. 1350 as Passed by the House and by the Senate, 108th Congress
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)1 and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)2 are two of the most significant federal statutes relating to education. Although both have the goal of improving education — IDEA for children with disabilities and NCLBA for all children — the two statutes take different approaches. IDEA focuses on the individual child, with an emphasis on developing an individualized education program (IEP) and specific services for children with disabilities, while NCLBA takes a more global view, with an emphasis on closing gaps in achievement test scores and raising the aggregate scores of all demographic groups of pupils to specific levels. The relationship of IDEA and NCLBA has become of increasing significance because of the recent reauthorization of IDEA and guidance and regulations from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on NCLBA issues related to the education of children with disabilities. This report will provide a brief overview of IDEA and NCLBA, a discussion of the intersection of selected provisions of IDEA and NCLBA, and a discussion of ED regulations and guidance regarding IDEA and NCLBA. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues related to the interaction of IDEA and NCLBA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9670/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) are two of the most significant federal statutes relating to education. Although both have the goal of improving education — IDEA for children with disabilities and NCLBA for all children — the two statutes take different approaches. IDEA focuses on the individual child, with an emphasis on developing an individualized education program (IEP) and specific services for children with disabilities, while NCLBA takes a more global view, with an emphasis on closing gaps in achievement test scores and raising the aggregate scores of all demographic groups of pupils to specific levels. The relationship of IDEA and NCLBA has become of increasing significance because of this recent reauthorization of IDEA and guidance and regulations from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on NCLBA issues related to the education of children with disabilities. This report will provide a brief overview of IDEA and NCLBA, a discussion of the intersection of selected provisions of IDEA and NCLBA, and a discussion of ED regulations and guidance regarding IDEA and NCLBA. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues related to the interaction of IDEA and NCLBA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9679/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Issues Regarding "Full Funding" of Part B Grants to States
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions
The Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA) providesfundsto statesfor the education of children with disabilities. It contains detailed requirements for the receipt of these funds, including the core requirement of the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). IDEA was comprehensively revised in 1997 by P.L. 105-17, but Congress has continued to grapple with issuesrelating to the Act. This report provides a brief overview of the Act with particular attention paid to issues of recent congressional concern, such as funding and the provision of FAPE for children with disabilities found to have brought a weapon to school. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2207/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of P.L. 108-446
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the main federal program concerning the education of children with disabilities. It authorizes state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities and contains detailed due process protections for children with disabilities and their parents. On December 3, 2004, President Bush signed “the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Improvement Act” (P.L. 108-446), a major reauthorization and revision of IDEA. The new law preserves the basic structure and civil rights guarantees of IDEA but also makes significant changes in the law. Most provisions of P.L. 108-446 go into effect on July 1, 2005. This report will briefly discuss several of the major changes made by the reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8077/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues
Congress is considering reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) program (the main federal program providing special education and related services to children with disabilities). Among the options being discussed is increasing parental choice under IDEA. This report provides background on current federal choice programs and on the Florida McKay Scholarship program, which provides scholarships for children with disabilities enrolled in the state’s public schools to attend other public schools or to attend participating private schools. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues that a federal special education voucher program might raise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2205/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Proposed Regulations for P.L. 108-446
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by H.R. 1350, 108th Congress
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by S. 1248, 108th Congress
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Services in Private Schools under P.L. 108-446
This report examines the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, P.L. 108-446, which makes several changes to the previous law regarding children with disabilities in private schools. Generally, children with disabilities enrolled by their parents in private schools are to be provided special education and related services to the extent consistent with the number and location of such children in the school district served by a LEA pursuant to several requirements. These requirements include new provisions relating to direct services to parentally placed private school children with disabilities, the calculation of the proportionate amount of funds, and a requirement for record keeping. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822411/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Paperwork in Special Education
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Schaffer v. Weast
This report discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which is the main federal program concerning the education of children with disabilities. It authorizes state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities and contains detailed due process protections for children with disabilities and their parents. On December 3, 2004, President Bush signed “The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Improvement Act” (P.L. 108-446), a major reauthorization and revision of IDEA. One issue which was not addressed in the reauthorization was whether the parents or the school bears the burden of proof in special education due process hearings. On November 14, 2005, the Supreme Court resolved a split in the circuits and held that the burden of proof in an administrative hearing challenging a child’s individualized education program is on the party seeking the relief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8327/
Legal Implications of the Contagious Disease or Infections Amendment to the Civil Rights Restoration Act, S.557
This report discusses the civil rights restoration act, S. 557, as it passed the House and Senate. This provision would most likely be interpreted as codifying the existing standards relating to section 504 interpretation concerning discrimination against individuals with handicaps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9610/
Legal Issues Related to Proving “Service Connection” for VA Disability Compensation: Statutory Presumptions
This report provides a basic overview of various statutory presumptions that help veterans substantiate a service-connected claim for disability compensation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103110/
The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues
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The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues
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Medicaid and Schools
This report discusses the recent history and current issues facing Medicaid funding for certain health related costs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795504/
Medicaid: Eligibility for the Aged and Disabled
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Military Support to the Severely Disabled: Overview of Service Programs
The Department of Defense (DOD) and each of the military services have established new programs to care for the severely disabled, ensuring rehabilitative assistance and easing the transition back to civilian life. Congress has followed these initiatives with interest and recently directed DOD to develop policies and procedures to standardize these programs. This report examines the background for the new initiatives and provides a status of each program, including contact information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821148/
Prohibiting Discrimination Against Handicapped Individuals in Federally Aided Programs: Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, As Amended
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Public Transportation Providers’ Obligations Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
This report discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101 et seq., which is a broad nondiscrimination statute that includes a prohibition of discrimination in public transportation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821610/
Quarantine and Isolation: Selected Legal Issues Relating to Employment
This report examines the employment-at-will doctrine, possible application of the public policy exception in the case of a potential influenza pandemic, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and possible application of the nondiscrimination mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463420/
Quarantine and Isolation: Selected Legal Issues Relating to Employment
This report examines the employment-at-will doctrine, possible application of the public policy exception in the case of a potential influenza pandemic, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and possible application of the nondiscrimination mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700683/
Rehabilitation Act: Major Programs, 105th Congress Legislation, and Funding
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Rehabilitation Act of 1973: 109th Congress Legislation and FY2006 Budget Request
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Rehabilitation Act: Summary of 1998 Reauthorization Legislation
This report discusses the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which provides comprehensive vocational rehabilitation (VR) services designed to help individuals with physical and mental disabilities become employable and to facilitate independence and integration into society. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821065/
Section 811 and Other HUD Housing Programs for Persons with Disabilities
This report describes how federal funds are used to develop housing designated for persons with disabilities. It also discusses current issues surrounding housing for persons with disabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795509/
Social Security and Medicare Taxes and Premiums: Fact Sheet
Financing for social security -- Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance -- and the Hospital Insurance part of Medicare is provided primarily by taxes levied on wages and net self-employment income. Financing for the Supplementary Medical Insurance portion of Medicare is provided by premiums from enrollees and payments from the government. This report describes these taxes and premiums. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26042/
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Medicare: The 24-Month Waiting Period for SSDI Beneficiaries Under Age 65
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Social Security: Reexamining Eligibility for Disability Benefits
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Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A Fact Sheet
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Title XVI of the Social Security Act, was enacted in 1972 and implemented in 1974 to assure a minimum cash income to all aged, blind, or disabled persons. SSI is provided to eligible aged or disabled individuals or couples who have limited income and resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26046/
Survey of State Statutes Affecting Voting by the Physically Handicapped
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The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate
This report discusses the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities; its purpose is to promote, protect, and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501714/
The Use of Seclusion and Restraint in Public Schools: The Legal Issues
Seclusion and restraint have been used in various situations to deal with violent or noncompliant behavior. Because of congressional interest in the use of seclusion and restraint in schools, including passage of H.R. 4247 and the introduction of S. 2860, 111th Congress, first session, this report focuses on the legal issues concerning the use of these techniques in schools, including their application both to children covered by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and to those not covered by IDEA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29568/
Veterans Affairs: Benefits for Service-Connected Disabilities
This report describes disability compensation, which is a benefit Congress provides to American veterans and their dependents through the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Disability compensation is a monthly cash benefit program for veterans currently impaired from past service-connected activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491175/
Veterans Affairs: Benefits for Service-Connected Disabilities
This report describes disability compensation, which is a benefit Congress provides to American veterans and their dependents through the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Disability compensation is a monthly cash benefit program for veterans currently impaired from past service-connected activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29668/
Veterans Affairs: Benefits for Service-Connected Disabilities
This report describes disability compensation, which is a benefit Congress provides to American veterans and their dependents through the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Disability compensation is a monthly cash benefit program for veterans currently impaired from past service-connected activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700710/
Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange
This report provides an overview of health care services and disability compensation benefits available to Vietnam veterans, Children of Vietnam Era veterans, and non-Vietnam veterans exposed to herbicides. This is followed by a discussion of litigation pertaining to Navy veterans of the Vietnam Era who served offshore and were never physically present on Vietnamese soil. The report concludes with a discussion of epidemiologic research conducted to study the health effects of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure on Vietnam veterans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462214/
Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange
This report provides an overview of health care services and disability compensation benefits available to Vietnam veterans, Children of Vietnam Era veterans, and non-Vietnam veterans exposed to herbicides. This is followed by a discussion of the recent litigation pertaining to Navy veterans of the Vietnam Era who served offshore and were never physically present on Vietnamese soil. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627054/
Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange
This report provides an overview of health care services and disability compensation benefits available to Vietnam veterans, Children of Vietnam Era veterans, and non-Vietnam veterans exposed to herbicides. This is followed by a discussion of litigation pertaining to Navy veterans of the Vietnam Era who served offshore and were never physically present on Vietnamese soil. The report concludes with a discussion of epidemiologic research conducted to study the health effects of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure on Vietnam veterans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29704/
Veterans' Benefits: An Overview of Benefits for Disabled Veterans
This report provides an overview of health care services and disability compensation benefits available to Vietnam veterans, children of Vietnam-era veterans, and non-Vietnam veterans exposed to herbicides. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770592/