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 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: This report summarizes the eight cases initiated by Members of Congress in which final rulings were reached, which concerned U.S. military activities in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Grenada; military action taken during the Persian Gulf conflict between Iraq and Iran; U.S. activities in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait (prior to the congressional authorization); U.S. participation in NATO's action in Kosovo and Yugoslavia; and U.S. military action in Libya.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Forces in Iraq

U.S. Forces in Iraq

Date: July 24, 2008
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne & Waterhouse, Michael
Description: Varying media estimates of military forces in Iraq have raised concerns about the actual number of troops deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Last year, a major announcement on a surge in troop deployments to Iraq by President Bush included a planned gradual increase of more than 20,000 U.S. troops on the ground in Baghdad and Anbar province over several months. Since the "new strategy for Iraq" speech by the President in January 2007, troop deployments gradually increased during the months of February through October 2007 but decreased beginning in November 2007. This report provides solely Department of Defense (DOD) statistical information on U.S. forces serving in Iraq. It also provides brief official information on the military units schedule for the next rotation of duty into Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: November 20, 1991
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Description: This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan (for Afghanistan, beginning with LOGCAP IV) administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: April 11, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities, specific Navy IW budget priorities, and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets. Congress' decisions regarding Navy IW and CT operations can affect Navy operations and funding requirements, and the implementation of the nation's overall IW and CT strategies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Description: This report will examine logistical support contracts for troop support services (also known as service contracts) in Iraq and Afghanistan, primarily administered through a smaller program, the United States Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP) and a larger program, the United States Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). This report will focus primarily on contracts involving Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated funds, although some projects involve a blending of funds from other agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) activities, and has taken some steps in recent years to strengthen its ability to conduct such activities. Among the most readily visible of the Navy's current IW operations are those being carried out by Navy sailors serving ashore in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities, specific Navy IW budget priorities, and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance

Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report describes recent developments in the large-scale assistance program, the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), undertaken by the United States and the international community in an effort to rehabilitate economic infrastructure and introduce representative government to post-war Iraq, and examines key issues of potential interest to Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Department of Defense's Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress

The Department of Defense's Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress

Date: February 21, 2011
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe
Description: This report examines current private security contractor (PSC) trends in Afghanistan and Iraq, steps the Department of Defense (DOD) has taken to improve oversight and management, and the impact that using private security personnel can have on military operations. It also reviews steps Congress has taken to exercise oversight over the use of PSCs and includes options for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraqi Civilian Deaths Estimates

Iraqi Civilian Deaths Estimates

Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Description: This report presents various governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian dead and wounded. The Department of Defense (DOD) regularly updates total U.S. military death and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). However, no Iraqi or U.S. government office regularly releases publicly available statistics on Iraqi civilian deaths or civilians who have been wounded. Statistics on Iraqi civilian dead and wounded are sometimes available through alternative sources, such as nonprofit organizations, or through statements made by officials to the press. Because these estimates are based on varying time periods and have been created using differing methodologies, readers should exercise caution when using these statistics and should look on them as guideposts rather than as statements of fact.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department