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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense leasing foreign-built ships, the opponents of this practice, and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy is currently developing technologies and studying design options for a planned new cruiser called the CG(X). This report explores the reasoning behind the development of these cruisers, the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. Decisions that Congress makes on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the CVN-78 program, which includes the CVN-78 and CVN-79 as the first two ships in the Navy's new Gerald R. Ford (CVN- 78) class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (CVNs).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses current issues for Congress concerning the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program including the program's mission modules, the combat survivability of the LCS, hull cracking and engine problems on LCS-1, and corrosion on LCS-2. The LCS is a relatively inexpensive Navy surface combatant equipped with modular "plug-and-fight" mission packages.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the Navy's shipbuilding plan that calls for procuring an 11th and final San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ship in FY2011. This report discusses the procurement cost estimates of this ship, as well as related issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) at a rate of one per year for the past several years, and a total of 11 boats have been procured through FY2009. This report discusses the Navy's proposed FY2010 budget, which requests $1,964.3 million in procurement funding to complete the procurement cost of a 12th Virginia-class boats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues

Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report discusses the legal framework that applies to private security contractors (PSCs) in Iraq and Afghanistan. The report follows up with a discussion of jurisdiction over PSC personnel in U.S. courts, identifying possible means of prosecuting contractor personnel who are accused of violating the law overseas in the context of U.S. military operations. Finally, the report briefly discusses the possible implication of the roles of private security contractors with respect to inherently governmental functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense-- Background and Issues for Congress

Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense-- Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 22, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the changing role and finance of sea-based systems in U.S. ballistic missile defense (BMD). Decisions that Congress reaches on this issue could affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements; the size, capabilities, and operational patterns of the Navy and the other services; and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Using a variety of unclassified consultations and sources, this report discusses the national security problem of the People's Republic of China's (PRC) role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. This report is based on unclassified open-source information, such as the annual Department of Defense (DOD) report to Congress on China's military power, an August 2009 report from the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), and published reference sources such as Jane's Fighting Ships.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's Deepwater acquisition programs for replacing and modernizing the service's aging fleet of deepwater-capable ships and aircraft.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) is placing an increased planning and budgeting emphasis on irregular warfare (IW) operations, such as counterinsurgency operations. In addition, counterterrorism (CT) operations have been a DOD area of emphasis since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of IW and CT activities, and has taken some steps in recent years to strengthen its ability to conduct such activities. This report discusses these activities and potential oversight issues raised by them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN) Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN) Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's proposal to homeport a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier (CVN) at Mayport, Florida. Transferring a CVN from Norfolk, Virginia, to Mayport would also shift the local economic activity associated with homeporting a CVN, which some sources estimate as being worth hundreds of millions of dollars per year.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Congress in recent years has proposed, and sometimes passed, legislation regarding the naming of specific ships.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Terrorism and Transnational Crime: Security Threats, U.S. Policy, and Considerations for Congress

International Terrorism and Transnational Crime: Security Threats, U.S. Policy, and Considerations for Congress

Date: January 5, 2010
Creator: Rollins, John; Wyler, Liana Sun & Rosen, Seth
Description: This report provides a primer on the confluence of transnational terrorist and criminal groups and related activities abroad. It evaluates possible motivations and disincentives for cooperation between terrorist and criminal organizations, variations in the scope of crime-terrorism links, and the types of criminal activities--fundraising, material and logistics support, and exploitation of corruption and gaps in the rule of law--used by terrorist organizations to sustain operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

Date: January 6, 2010
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: This report discusses the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans all nuclear explosion and was in 1996 adopted by the U.N. General Assembly but rejected by the U.S. Senate in 1997. This report discusses the Obama Administration's stated goal of pursuing U.S. ratification of the CTBT, although the Administration has mainly focused on securing Senate consent to ratification of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START). This report also discusses other nuclear weapons-related issues as well as the long history of nuclear testing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Date: January 7, 2010
Creator: Kan, Shirley A. & Niksch, Larry A.
Description: This report discusses the strategic significance of Guam for defense buildup and the force relocation and deployments from the U.S. mainland. It also discusses the concerns and issues for Congress, such as allies and partners, relations with China, and legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues

Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues

Date: January 7, 2010
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report discusses the legal framework that applies to private security contractors (PSCs) in Iraq and Afghanistan. After presenting a general description of the types of law applicable, including international humanitarian law and relevant status of forces agreements, the report addresses some implications of international law and a multilateral proposal for the adoption of international "best practices" regarding the use of PSCs. The report follows up with a discussion of jurisdiction over PSC personnel in U.S. courts, whether federal or military courts, identifying possible means of prosecuting contractor personnel who are accused of violating the law overseas in the context of U.S. military operations, including a listing of known cases that have occurred or are pending. Finally, the report briefly discusses the possible implication of the roles of private security contractors with respect to inherently governmental functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Periods of War

U.S. Periods of War

Date: January 7, 2010
Creator: Salazar Torreon, Barbara
Description: This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

Date: January 8, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program -- including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates -- and assesses current developments in achieving denuclearization.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)

Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)

Date: January 8, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report looks at the background and current status of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), which was formed to increase international cooperation in interdicting shipments of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department