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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 1761 - 1784 of 2,947
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Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 22, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy in February 2006 proposed to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including, among other things, 11 aircraft carriers, 48 attack submarines (SSNs), 88 cruisers and destroyers, 55 Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), 31 amphibious ships, and a Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), squadron with 12 new-construction amphibious and sealift-type ships. The Navy says that for its shipbuilding plans to be affordable and executable, the Navy needs to control certain non-shipbuilding expenditures and build ships within estimated costs. The Navy's shipbuilding plans raise potential issues regarding the shipbuilding industrial base, particularly in the areas of the submarine design and engineering base, and the surface combatant construction base.
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Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 22, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 22, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
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Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. These treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. Since 1997, the United States has held 22 "subcritical experiments" at the Nevada Test Site, asserting that these experiments do not violate the CTBT because they cannot produce a self-sustaining chain reaction. The Senate rejected the CTBT on October 13, 1999, and the current Administration under President George W. Bush has indicated that it will continue to oppose the CTBT, will continue to adhere to the test moratorium, is considering modifying existing warheads for use against hard and deeply-buried targets, has not ruled out resumed testing, and has no plans to test.
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Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
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Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
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Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
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Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
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The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process.
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FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Hurricane Katrina Relief

FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Hurricane Katrina Relief

Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Irwin, Paul M. & Nowels, Larry
Description: This report discusses the two separate FY2006 supplemental appropriations requests submitted on February 16, 2006. The first, totaling $72.4 billion, would fund ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ($67.9 billion), non-DOD intelligence operations ($0.3 billion), State Department operations in Iraq and various foreign aid programs, including additional assistance for Iraq ($4.2 billion), and other counter-terrorism funding for other agencies ($12 million). The other supplemental would provide $19.8 billion for recovery and reconstruction activities in hurricane affected Gulf Coast areas. Thus, Congress is to consider during the early months of 2006 a combined spending proposal of $92.2 billion.
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Iraq: Recent Developments

Iraq: Recent Developments

Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY203 Supplemental Appropriation, among others. Many reconstruction efforts on the ground are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably. A range of programs -- accounting for roughly 27% of appropriations -- are in place to offer expert advice to the Iraqi government, establish business centers, rehabilitate schools and health clinics, provide school books and vaccinations, etc.
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Iraq:  Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: Following years of authoritarian rule and economic sanctions, the United States and the international community agreed in the spring of 2003 that efforts should be made to rehabilitate economic infrastructure and introduce representative government to post-war Iraq, among other objectives. More recently, the Bush Administration has asserted a “victory” strategy composed of eight objectives, five of which are to: transition Iraq to security self-reliance, help Iraqis form a national compact for democratic government, help Iraq build government capacity and provide essential services, help Iraq strengthen its economy, and help Iraq strengthen the rule of law and promote civil rights. To meet these ends, a large-scale assistance program has been undertaken by the United States in Iraq. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort.
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The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: With the passing of FY2006 supplemental bill H.R. 4939, Congress will have appropriated a total of about $437 billion for the three military operations initiated since the 9/11 attacks: Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) covering Afghanistan and other Global War on Terror (GWOT) operations, Operation Noble Eagle (ONE) providing enhanced security at military bases, and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Iraq. On a monthly basis, the Department of Defense (DOD) spent an average of about $6.4 billion for OIF, $1.3 billion for OEF, and $180 million for enhanced base security in FY2005. Potential oversight issues for Congress include getting estimates of the cost to repair and replae war-worn equipment and of possible offsetting costs to DOD's regular budget because equipment is being fixed or bought earlier than planned. DOD's annual war funding may reach $118 billion in FY2006 if the pending supplemental is enacted.
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Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report details the total cost of counterterrorism operations in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This report also includes descriptions of relevant budgetary legislation.
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Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties

Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties

Date: June 9, 2006
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: The following casualty data was compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency's press releases. Included are statistics on fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing, as well as on the number of fatalities since May 1, 2003, plus statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. Statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and as all records are processed through the U.S. military's casualty system.
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Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Date: June 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The September 11th attacks drew attention to U.S. air defense, and the 9/11 Commission Report recommended that Congress regularly assess the ability of Northern Command to defend the United States against military threats. Protecting U.S. airspace may require improvements in detecting aircraft and cruise missiles, making quick operational decisions, and intercepting them. A number of options exist in each of these areas. A variety of issues must be weighed including expediency, cost, and minimizing conflicts with civilian aviation.
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Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Date: June 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses U.S. air defense, in the wake of 9/11. Protecting U.S. airspace may require improvements in detecting aircraft and cruise missiles, making quick operational decisions, and intercepting them. A number of options exist in each of these areas. A variety of issues must be weighed including expediency, cost, and minimizing conflicts with civilian aviation.
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Military Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD): Assessing Future Needs

Military Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD): Assessing Future Needs

Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Suppressing enemy air defenses (SEAD) has been a central element of projecting military air power for over 50 years. However, several developments suggest that this mission is of growing importance to the Department of Defense (DOD). Some say that the emergence of new technologies and air defenses will increasingly challenge U.S. SEAD efforts. Making budgetary judgments on SEAD programs and processes requires the assessment of complex factors.
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Project BioShield

Project BioShield

Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Description: Many potential biological terrorism agents lack available countermeasures. President Bush proposed Project BioShield to address this need and signed into law on July 21, 2004 S. 15 (The Project BioShield Act of 2004). The main provisions of this law include (1) relaxing procedures for bioterrorism-related procurement, hiring, and awarding of research grants; (2) guaranteeing a federal government market for new biomedical countermeasures; and (3) permitting emergency use of unapproved countermeasures.
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities -- Background and Issues for Congress

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities -- Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: Concern has grown in Congress and elsewhere about China's military modernization. The topic is an increasing factor in discussions over future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China's military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs?
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Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use -- Background for Congress

Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use -- Background for Congress

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information on options for technologies that could reduce the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships, as well as four general strategies for reducing the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships: reducing energy use on Navy ships; alternative hydrocarbon fuels; nuclear propulsion; and sail and solar power.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Deepwater program is a $24 billion, 25-year acquisition program to replace or modernize 93 Coast Guard ships and 207 Coast Guard aircraft. The Coast Guard's FY2007 budget requests $934.431 million for the program. Some Members of Congress have criticized and expressed strong concerns over the Deepwater program on several grounds. The House-reported version of H.R. 5441, the FY2007 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations bill, recommends $892.64 million for the Deepwater program.
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