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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4328/
International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2546/
Kosovo and NATO: Selected Issues of International Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs944/
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4319/
Response to Terrorism: Legal Aspects of the Use of Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1542/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8184/
Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Lebanon's Hezbollah, a Shiite Islamist militia, political party, social welfare organization, and U.S. State Department-designated terrorist organization. The report discusses recent Hezbollah-related conflicts, Hezbollah's relationship with other Lebanese political parties, and U.S. policy regarding Hezbollah. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31384/
Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses Lebanon's Hezbollah, a Shiite Islamist militia, political party, social welfare organization, and U. S. State Department-designated terrorist organization. The report also discusses recent Hezbollah-related conflicts, Hezbollah's relationship with other Lebanese political parties, and U. S. policy regarding Hezbollah. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227686/
Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8151/
Department of Defense Purchase of Renewable Energy Credits Under the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012
Report that looks at the background of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (NDAA), the Department of Defense's (DOD) electrical use, and DOD electricity use versus state electricity use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227831/
Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and Judicial Cooperation
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to combat terrorism and other crossborder crimes such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, and financial fraud. For many years, EU efforts to address such challenges were hampered by national sovereignty concerns, insufficient resources, and a lack of trust among law enforcement agencies. However, the terrorist attacks and the subsequent revelation of Al Qaeda cells in Europe changed this status quo as it became increasingly evident that the EU’s open borders and different legal systems allowed terrorists and other criminals to move around easily and evade arrest and prosecution. Thus, EU officials renewed their efforts to harmonize national laws and bring down traditional barriers among member states’ police, intelligence, and judicial authorities. As part of this initiative, the EU has also sought to enhance ongoing cooperation with U.S. law enforcement and judicial authorities so that information can be meaningfully shared and suspects apprehended expeditiously. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7370/
Muslims in Europe: Promoting Integration and Countering Extremism
This report examines policies aimed at promoting integration, combating terrorism, and countering violent extremism in five European countries with significant Muslim populations: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The report also evaluates the role of the 27-member European Union (EU) in shaping European laws and policies related to integration and counter-radicalization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94018/
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8695/
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
For years, the British and Irish governments sought to facilitate a peaceful settlement to the conflict in Northern Ireland. After many ups and downs, the two governments and the Northern Ireland political parties participating in the peace talks announced an agreement on April 10, 1998. Despite a much improved security situation in the years since then, full implementation of the resulting Good Friday Agreement has been difficult. On May 8, 2007, however, Northern Ireland's devolved political institutions were restored after an almost five-year suspension following a powersharing deal between the largest unionist and nationalist parties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10578/
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7210/
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6834/
U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6507/
U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6506/
U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6206/
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
For years, the British and Irish governments have sought to facilitate a peaceful settlement to the conflict in Northern Ireland. After many ups and downs, the two government and the parties participating in the peace talks announced an agreement on April 10, 1998. The implementation of the resulting Good Friday Agreement continues to be difficult. A political stalemate in Northern Ireland since 2002 has halted the peace process and forced London to suspend the devolved government and to resume governance of the province. British and Irish leaders have set a November 24, 2006, deadline to revive talks on governance in Northern Ireland. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10256/
European Approaches to Homeland Security and Counterterrorism
This report examines homeland security and counterterrorist measures in six selected European countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. None of these European countries currently has a single ministry or department equivalent to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. In most of these countries, responsibility for different aspects of homeland security and counterterrorism is scattered across several ministries or different levels of government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9493/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83929/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83928/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87147/
Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) policy via the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. The report focuses on DRMS background, as well as the most recent DRMS policy modifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98111/
Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) policy via the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. The report focuses on DRMS background, as well as the most recent DRMS policy modifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228093/
Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) policy via the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. The report focuses on DRMS background, as well as the most recent DRMS policy modifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228094/
Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) policy for disposing of items via the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS); this method is used for government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. The report focuses on DRMS background, as well as the most recent DRMS policy modifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287921/
Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report covers concerns that Congress has expresses over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93867/
Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report covers concerns that Congress has expressed over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99048/
The Specialty Metal Clause: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress
This report examines the specialty metal clause, potential oversight issues, and options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276877/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law
This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10071/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals
This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3772/
National Security Surveillance Act of 2006: S. 3886, Title II (S. 2453 as Reported Out of the Senate Judiciary Committee)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9528/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000
Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs940/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1584/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1144/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4274/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4276/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4275/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2522/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2521/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2520/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2518/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005
This report provides background information on each defense-related environmental program, discusses key funding issues, and examines relevant provisions in authorization legislation and appropriations for FY2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7849/
Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs
The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs615/
Vieques and Culebra Islands: An Analysis of Cleanup Status and Costs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7517/
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense
Whether broader expansions from federal environmental laws are needed to preserve military readiness has been an issue. Questions have been raised as to whether environmental requirements have limited military training activities to the point that readiness would be compromised. The potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality have raised additional questions. Although certain exemptions the Department of Defense (DOD) first requested in FY2003 have been enacted into law, Congress has opposed others. From FY2003 to FY2008, DOD requested exemptions from the Clean Air Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. To date, Congress has not enacted these three latter exceptions. The Administration's FY2009 defense authorization bill does not include these exemptions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10640/
Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6520/
Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6624/
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