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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847788/
Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense
This report provides an overview of U.S. assistance to and engagement with foreign military and other security forces, focusing on Department of State and DOD roles. It lays out the historical evolution and current framework of the Department of State-DOD shared responsibility. It concludes with a brief overview of salient issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847538/
The Chinese Military: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Chinese military. In order to cover a wide range of issues in a concise format, the report does not go into great depth on many topics and omits other topics that might be considered germane. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847539/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs. Congress's decisions on the LCS/Frigate program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847544/
The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress
This report discusses the National Security Strategy (NSS), a document released by the Obama Administration which states that its purpose is to "set out the principles and priorities to guide the use of American power and influence in the world." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847548/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. Congress's decisions regarding Navy IW and CT operations can affect Navy operations and funding requirements, and the implementation of the nation's overall IW and CT strategies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847549/
Additional U.S. Ground Troops to Counter the Islamic State? Five Questions
This report addresses common questions regarding Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR)--the military campaign to counter the Islamic State (IS)--which has three primary components: coordinated air strikes, training and equipping local security forces, and targeted special operations based out of northern Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847558/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. Decisions that Congress reaches on this issue could affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the U.S. defense industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847569/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. Decisions that Congress makes on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847576/
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO-205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 17 fleet oilers for the Navy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847705/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847713/
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847723/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs. Congress's decisions on the LCS/Frigate program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847739/
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview
This report reviews some of the principal existing homeland security information sharing arrangements, as well as some projected arrangements in this regard, and discusses related policy, evaluations, and proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847774/
The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress
This report discusses the National Security Strategy (NSS), a document released by the Obama Administration which states that its purpose is to "set out the principles and priorities to guide the use of American power and influence in the world." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847634/
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2016
This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of Department of Defense (DOD) authorization and appropriations bills (fiscal years 1970-2016) through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847656/
Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Implementation of the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
Particulate matter (PM), including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and larger, but still inhalable particles (PM10), is one of the six principal pollutants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This report outlines the implementation process for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS and describes issues raised as EPA and states develop implementation strategies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847671/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847685/
Iraq: U.S. Military Operations
This report discusses US military operations in Iraq. Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs, together with Iraqi long-range missile development and support for al-Queda terrorism, were the primary justifications put forward for military action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847693/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847696/
Veterans' Benefits: Burial Benefits and National Cemeteries
This report provides a descriptive analysis of both nonmonetary and monetary burial benefits and national cemeteries. It addresses congressional and constituent issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847698/
Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use -- Background for Congress
This report provides background information on options for technologies that could reduce the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships, as well as four general strategies for reducing the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships: reducing energy use on Navy ships; alternative hydrocarbon fuels; nuclear propulsion; and sail and solar power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847585/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). Congress's decisions on these three programs could substantially affect Coast Guard capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847586/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs. Congress's decisions on the LCS/Frigate program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847609/
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management
This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847495/
Goldwater-Nichols at 30: Defense Reform and Issues for Congress
This report is designed to assist Congress as it evaluates the many different defense reform proposals suggested by the variety of stakeholders and institutions within the U.S. national security community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847504/
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113
This report discusses S. 113, a bill to extend the coverage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") to non-U.S. persons who engage in international terrorism or activities in preparation for terrorist acts, without a showing of membership in or affiliation with an international terrorist group. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824819/
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues surrounding the funding for development of Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC). The Marines are required by law to have the necessary equipment to conduct amphibious operations and land operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824788/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs (frigates). The Navy's execution of the program has been a matter of congressional oversight attention for several years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824668/
Goldwater-Nichols and the Evolution of Officer Joint Professional Military Education (JPME)
This report focuses mainly on Joint Professional Military Education (JPME) requirements in the context of the reforms of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 that led to major changes in officer training and career development through the establishment of a joint management system. Although the report refers to joint officer assignments and promotions, it does not address the joint officer management system as a whole. The first sections provide background on joint education and the changes put in place by GNA. The following sections discuss the implementation and evolution of JPME over the past 30 years. The final section lays out some of the stakeholders' concerns and issues with the current state of JPME that Congress may consider as they conduct their GNA review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824677/
The Middle East Peace Talks
This report examines the current climate regarding peace talks in the Middle East. Congress is interested in the peace talks because of its oversight role in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy, its support for Israel, and keen constituent interest. It is concerned about U.S. financial and other commitments and the Palestinians' fulfillment of their commitments to Israel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824704/
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet
This report contains links to resources about Martin Luther King, Jr. Day including legislation, CRS reports, sample speeches and remarks from the Congressional Record, and presidential proclamations and remarks. It also contains links to additional government web resources and selected educational, cultural, and advocacy organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824745/
The Fight Against Al Shabaab in Somalia in 2016
This report discusses current efforts to counter Al Shabaab, a Somalia-based Al Qaeda affiliate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824700/
National Commission on the Future of the Army (NCFA): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the the National Commission on the Future of the Army (NCFA), which was established to conduct a comprehensive study of the structure of the Army. The NCFA reported its findings to Congress and the Administration on January 28, 2016, and made a number of recommendations that may or may not be acted upon. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824563/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV), which is an Army-led, multi-service initiative to develop a family of light tactical vehicles as a successor to the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs). It includes background information; a description of the JLTV program, program history, and program activities; information about the JLTV contract, Lockheed Martin's protest to the program, budgetary issues, and potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824583/
Trends in the Timing and Size of DHS Appropriations: In Brief
This report examines trends in the timing and size of homeland security appropriations measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824584/
Additional U.S. Ground Troops to Counter the Islamic State? Five Questions
This report briefly discusses various arguments regarding the introduction of additional ground forces to secure territory once it has been taken back from the Islamic State. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824592/
Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities
This report provides an overview of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works program, including congressional authorization and appropriations. Its civil works responsibilities are principally to support navigation, reduce flood and storm damage, and protect and restore aquatic ecosystems. The report also covers the standard project development process for Corps projects and other Corps activities and authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824596/
Terrorist Financing: The 9/11 Commission Recommendation
This report discusses the 9/11 Commission's recommendation that the U.S. government shift the focus of its efforts to counter terrorist financing from a strategy based on seizing terrorist assets to a strategy based on exploiting intelligence gathered from financial investigations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824603/
Missile Defense: The Current Debate
This report provides background information on the Bush Administration's proposed approach toward the development and deployment of missile defense. It also discusses key related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824465/
The U.S.-Japan Alliance
This report focuses on the political and military partnership between the United States and Japan. The U.S.-Japan alliance, forged in the U.S. occupation of Japan after its defeat in World War II, provides a platform for U.S. military readiness in Asia. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, about 53,000 U.S. troops are stationed in Japan, providing the major U.S. forward logistics base in the Asia-Pacific. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824484/
Federal Disaster Policies After Terrorists Strike: Issues and Options for Congress
This report is intended to assist Congress as it considers options for consequence management legislation. It provides information on federal policies that would be implemented in the event that terrorist attacks in an attempt to answer the question: Based on experiences gained thus far, should Congress consider changes in federal consequence management policies to address the effects of possible future attacks? The report explores two types of issues--selected administrative issues pertinent to the delivery of assistance, and selected policy issues about the assistance provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824485/
The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress
This report discusses the National Security Strategy (NSS), a document released by the Obama Administration which states that its purpose is to "set out the principles and priorities to guide the use of American power and influence in the world." This update emphasizes a shift away from the U.S. role in the world being largely a catalyst for action by international institutions to one that reflects more involved leadership both inside those institutions and between nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824490/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824498/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: A Sketch
This report discusses the sunset of a handful of communications-related sections of the USA PATRIOT Act and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act on March 10, 2006. The authority of the expiring sections remains in effect only as it relates to foreign intelligence investigations begun before sunset or to offenses or potential offenses begun or occurring before that date. Thereafter, the law reverts to its previous form unless it has been amended in the interim or subsequently renewed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824614/
Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress regarding the LX(R) ships meant to replase the Whidbey Island/Harpers Ferry (LSD-41/49) class amphibious ships. In particular, issues focus on funding for the research and development of the ships and their procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824623/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824634/
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: FY2016
This report discusses the FY2016 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and provides an overview of the Administration's FY2016 request. The report makes note of many budgetary resources provided to DHS, but its primary focus is on funding approved by Congress through the appropriations process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824635/
FY2016 Changes to DOD's 1033 Program
This report briefly discusses the current status of the Department of Defense's (DOD's) 1033 Program, under which excess DOD property -- such as personal computers, vehicles, and firearms -- are made available to qualified federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824653/
General and Flag Officers in the U.S. Armed Forces: Background and Considerations for Congress
This report provides an overview of active duty general and flag officers (GFOs) in the United States Armed Forces-- including authorizations, duties, and compensation--historical trends in the proportion of GFOs relative to the total force, criticisms and justifications of GFO to total force proportions, and statutory controls. National Guard and Reserve GFOs are not addressed in this report, unless they are serving on active duty in a manner that counts against the active duty caps on GFOs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824511/
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