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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Peacekeeping Options: Considerations for U.S. Policymakers and the Congress

Peacekeeping Options: Considerations for U.S. Policymakers and the Congress

Date: April 10, 1997
Creator: Collier, Ellen & Serafino, Nina M.
Description: This report provides a frame of reference for considering the relative merits of using these organizations in peace and security operations. It first reviews the types of actions and activities available to deal with situations ranging from low-level tension to open conflict to post-conflict transition. It then examines, for each of the organizations, the major considerations, i.e., effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages, and other important issues for U.S. policy makers in their use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense’s Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program

Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense’s Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enlargement in Central Europe

Enlargement in Central Europe

Date: November 10, 1994
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.
Description: In December 1994, NATO members will begin the process of debating possible criteria for new members from Central Europe. Alliance relations with Russia will be a central factor determining the outcome of the debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934

The U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934

Date: May 26, 1994
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: In 1915, the United States undertook a military occupation of Haiti to preempt any European intervention, to establish order out of civil strife, and to stabilize Haitian finances. During the nineteen-year occupation, U.S. military and civilian officials, numbering less than 2500 for the most part, supervised the collection of taxes and the disbursement of revenues, maintained public order, and initiated a program of public works. The Haitian government remained in place, but was subject to U.S. guidance. The Haitian people benefitted from the end of endemic political violence and from the construction of roads, bridges, and ports as well as from improved access to health care. The U.S. occupation was, nonetheless, deeply resented throughout Haitian society, and many of its accomplishments did not long endure its termination in 1934.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Partnership for Peace

Partnership for Peace

Date: August 9, 1994
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.
Description: NATO's Partnership for Peace program seeks to encourage eligible states, above all the states of the former Warsaw Pact and the former Soviet Union, to build democracy and undertake greater responsibilities in international security. The program could open the door to, but does not promise, NATO membership. U.S. and NATO relations with Russia are likely to be the determining factor in deciding whether states move from Partnership to NATO membership.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Emergency Powers

National Emergency Powers

Date: April 29, 1991
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: This report the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601-1651) that eliminated or modified some statutory grants of emergency authority, required the President to declare formally the existence of a national emergency and to specify what statutory authority, activated by the declaration, would be used, and provided Congress a means to countermand the President's declaration and the activated authority being sought.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Burrelli, David F
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: November 20, 1991
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War

Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War

Date: February 27, 1991
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A UN Rapid Reaction Force

A UN Rapid Reaction Force

Date: June 29, 1995
Creator: Serafino, Nina M
Description: This report, completed in June 1995, discusses the content and context of the January 1995 proposal by then-United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that U.N. Member States consider the creation of a special rapid reaction force to perform U.N. peacekeeping operations. It contains brief background information on similar proposals and a description of the current U.N. "standby forces" system. It reviews the concerns and issues raised by the Boutros-Ghali proposal, including political acceptability, financing, and the problems of force design and operation. It concludes with an analysis of the strategic, budgetary, political and military implications for the United States. This report will not be updated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress

Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress

Date: May 15, 1991
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements

Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements

Date: April 19, 1991
Creator: Collins, John M
Description: This preliminary assessment summarizes U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps performances during recent war, then relates it to past experience and potential threats in ways that might help decisionmakers determine the most suitable characteristics of U.S. armed forces for the rest of this decade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Bowman, Steven R & Barel, Helit
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cruise Missile Inventories and NATO Attacks on Yugoslavia: Background Information

Cruise Missile Inventories and NATO Attacks on Yugoslavia: Background Information

Date: April 20, 1999
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This short report provides background information on the Air Force’s Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile (CALCM) and the conventionally armed version of the Navy’s Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile (TLAM).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons Testing and Negotiation of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons Testing and Negotiation of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: November 14, 1996
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Date: November 16, 1995
Creator: Shuey, Robert & Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Date: July 6, 1995
Creator: Shuey, Robert & Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Date: February 2, 1995
Creator: Shuey, Robert & Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress

Date: October 20, 1993
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
North Korea: U.S. Policy and Negotiations to Halt Its Nuclear Weapons Program: An Annotated Chronology and Analysis

North Korea: U.S. Policy and Negotiations to Halt Its Nuclear Weapons Program: An Annotated Chronology and Analysis

Date: November 18, 1994
Creator: Cronin, Richard P & Moore, Violet Jie
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chinese Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control Policies: Implications and Options for the United States

Chinese Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control Policies: Implications and Options for the United States

Date: March 25, 1994
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Korean Crisis, 1994: Military Geography, Military Balance, Military Options

Korean Crisis, 1994: Military Geography, Military Balance, Military Options

Date: April 11, 1994
Creator: Collins, John M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Maritime Security Program (MSP) in an International Commercial Context: A Discussion

The Maritime Security Program (MSP) in an International Commercial Context: A Discussion

Date: October 28, 1998
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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