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 Resource Type: Report
 Country: Iran
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Arms Control Ratification: Opportunities for Modifying Agreements

Arms Control Ratification: Opportunities for Modifying Agreements

Date: September 2, 2015
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: This report briefly examines arms control ratification and opportunities for modifying agreements. On July 14, 2015, Iran, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany (the P5+1) finalized a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--an agreement that restricts Iran's nuclear program in an effort to ensure that it can only be used for peaceful purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arms Shipments to Iran

Arms Shipments to Iran

Date: April 3, 1987
Creator: Preece, Richard M
Description: This report provides background and examines key questions in regards to the shipments of arms to Iran and the subsequent diversion of funds to Nicaraguan guerrillas by the Reagan Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: July 16, 2010
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report analyzes war funding for the Defense Department and tracks funding for USAID and VA Medical funding. Information on costs is useful to Congress to assess the FY2010 Supplemental for war costs for the Department of Defense (DOD) and State/USAID, FY2011 war requests, conduct oversight of past war costs, and consider the longer-term costs implications of the buildup of troops in Afghanistan and potential problems in the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report analyzes war funding for the Department of Defense (DOD) and tracks funding for USAID and Veteran's Affairs (VA) Medical funding. Information on costs helps Congress to assess the FY2010 Supplemental for war costs for the Department of Defense (DOD) and State/USAID FY2011 war requests; conduct oversight of past war costs; and consider the longer-term costs implications of the buildup of troops in Afghanistan and potential problems in the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Bailey Grasso, Valerie
Description: This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan (for Afghanistan, beginning with LOGCAP IV) administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). LOGCAP is an initiative designed to manage the use of civilian contractors that perform services during times of war and other military mobilizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress

Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Description: Hamas, or the Islamic Resistance Movement, is a Palestinian Islamist military and sociopolitical movement that grew out of the Muslim Brotherhood, a Sunni religious and political organization founded in Egypt in 1928 that has branches throughout the world. The United States, Israel, the European Union, and Canada consider Hamas a terrorist organization. The overarching U.S. goal regarding Hamas is to deter, transform, marginalize, or neutralize it so that it no longer presents a threat to Israel's security, to a peaceful and lasting resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, or to other U.S. interests. This report discusses U.S. efforts and policy debates on these issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
India and Iran: WMD Proliferation Activities

India and Iran: WMD Proliferation Activities

Date: November 8, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: This report discusses India's nonproliferation record and reported transfers to Iran of limited nuclear, chemical, and missile-related materials. Members of Congress have questioned whether India's cooperation with Iran might affect U.S. and other efforts to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: To address the challenges facing the U.S. intelligence community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis. This report discusses these challenges and efforts the current and previous Administrations and Congresses have taken and are taking to address them. The report includes criticism of the intelligence community's efforts regarding Iraq, Iran, and other areas. Improved analysis remains a key goal in these discussions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy

The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: October 14, 1987
Creator: Preece, Richard M.
Description: This report discusses the Iran-Iraq conflict at its present state, which has become a war of attrition with neither side capable of achieving a decisive military victory over the other in the short term. U.S. policy concerns currently are threefold: first, that Iraq, despite moves to sustain its economic and military capacities, ultimately might suffer a destabilizing defeat to the detriment of U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region; second, that future instability in Iran could open opportunities for Soviet exploitation; and third, that the conflict might expand beyond its present confines to threaten friendly regional states and the availability of their vast petroleum resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station:  Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S.
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: October 8, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief

Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief

Date: September 11, 2015
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie & Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). The act establishes a period for Congress to review any comprehensive agreement, during which certain presidential actions to provide relief from sanctions on Iran are barred.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Stuxnet Computer Worm: Harbinger of an Emerging Warfare Capability

The Stuxnet Computer Worm: Harbinger of an Emerging Warfare Capability

Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.; Rollins, John & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: In September 2010, media reports emerged about a new form of cyber attack that appeared to target Iran, although the actual target, if any, is unknown. This report discusses this cyber attack, a malicious software program known as Stuxnet, which infected computer systems that were used to control the functioning of a nuclear power plant. Once inside the system, Stuxnet had the ability to degrade or destroy the software on which it operated. Although early reports focused on the impact on facilities in Iran, researchers discovered that the program had spread throughout multiple countries worldwide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: May 28, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses key policy issues related to a nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and Russia signed on May 6, 2008, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation, and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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