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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Unmanned Vehicles for U.S. Naval Forces: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress
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NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues
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Defense Transformation: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress
This report addresses defense transformation from a DOD-wide perspective. The Bush Administration identified transformation as a major goal for the Department of Defense (DOD) soon after taking office and has since worked to refine and implement its plans for defense transformation. Defense transformation can be defined as large-scale, discontinuous, and possibly disruptive changes in military weapons, concepts of operations (i.e., approaches to warfighting) and organization. The issue for the 109th Congress is how to take the concept of defense transformation into account in assessing and acting on Administration proposals for DOD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9356/
Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development in DOD Programs: Policy Issues for Congress
The Department of Defense (DOD) in 2001 adopted a new approach for developing major weapon systems, called evolutionary acquisition with spiral development (EA/SD), as its preferred standard. EA/SD is intended to make DOD’s acquisition system more responsive to rapid changes in military needs. EA/SD poses potentially important challenges for Congress in carrying out its legislative functions, particularly committing to and effectively overseeing DOD weapon acquisition programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9304/
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy wants to modernize 84 Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years at a total cost of billions of dollars. The modernizations are intended to ensure that the ships can be operated cost-effectively throughout their entire intended service lives. The program poses several potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10691/
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy wants to modernize 84 Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years at a potential total cost of about $9.7 billion in today's dollars. The modernizations are intended to ensure that the ships can be operated cost-effectively throughout their entire intended service lives. The program poses several potential issue for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10690/
Military Aircraft: The Joint Cargo Aircraft Program
Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) is a joint acquisition program between the Army and Air Force intended to procure a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft capable of meeting Army and Air Force requirements for intra-theater airlift. The C-27J Spartan, built by L-3 Communications, was awarded the JCA contract in 2007. This is an update of a report by William Knight and will be updated as conditions warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10720/
Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress
The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is the Navy's highest priority aviation modernization program. The decision to undertake F/A-18E/F Super Hornet program was made during a period of great turbulence in Navy aviation modernization. During this time frame the Navy struggled to identify and implement the best way to modernize its aging fleet of F-14 fighters and A-6E attack aircraft. The Department of Defense is currently facing a shortage of radar and communications jamming capability. The Super Hornet has been approved for international export, but no sales have been made as of June 2006. Key issues surrounding the program relate to the total number of Super Hornets to be procured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10485/
Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?
This report reviews data that the Administration has provided to Congress on the costs of U.S. forces based abroad and on the value of host nation support contributions. It analyzes the data in order to assess potential defense budget savings from measures now under congressional consideration. The report concludes that, because of shortcomings in the data, estimates of savings in the U.S. defense budget from increased host nation contributions are often overstated. Some commonly accepted assertions frequently cited in the congressional burdensharing debate, therefore, are of doubtful validity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26049/
Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006: A Fact Sheet on Department of Defense Authority to Train and Equip Foreign Military Forces
Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006 provides the Secretary of Defense with authority to train and equip foreign military and foreign maritime security forces. This authority expires in FY2011. As of early July 2009, FY2009 project approvals are being finalized. This report addresses FY2009 project approvals as well as FY2010 project proposals and requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26344/
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
In late 2007, the Department of Defense (DOD) launched a major procurement initiative to replace most uparmored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in Iraq with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles by FY2009. MRAPs have been described as providing significantly more protection against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) than uparmored HMMWVs. DOD's decision to acquire a new, smaller MRAP variant for use in Afghanistan; MRAP mechanical, logistical, and readiness concerns could be potential policy issues for congressional consideration. This report will be updated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26338/
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Prtected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
In late 2007, the Department of Defense (DOD) launched a major procurement initiative to replace most uparmored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in Iraq with Mine- Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles by FY2009. MRAPs have been described as providing significantly more protection against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) than uparmored HMMWVs. DOD's decision to acquire a new, smaller MRAP variant, the M-ATV, for use in Afghanistan; the disposition of MRAPs no longer needed in Iraq; and MRAP mechanical, logistical, and readiness concerns could be potential policy issues for congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26339/
U.S. Defense Procurement Reform: Major Congressional Initiatives
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F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), also called the Lighting II, is a new strike fighter being procured in different versions by the Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy. The F-35 program is the Department of Defense's (DOD's) largest weapon procurement program in terms of total estimated acquisition cost. The issues for Congress for FY2010 are whether to approve, reject, or modify the administration's funding request for the F-35 program, and whether to approve or reject the administration's proposal to terminate the alternate engine program. Congress' decisions on these matters will affect DOD capabilities and funding requirements and the tactical aircraft manufacturing industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26198/
U.S. Defense Procurement Reform: Major Congressional Initiatives
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Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress
Programs for implementing network-centric warfare (NCW) in the Navy include the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), the IT-21 program, and FORCEnet. A related program is the Navy-Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI). Congress has expressed concern for some of these programs, particularly NMCI. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10289/
Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
The FY2006 budget completed the funding required in the Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy (SCN) account for the Navy's program to refuel and convert four Trident ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) into cruise-missile-carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The first two converted SSGNs reentered service in 2006; the other two are scheduled to reenter service by late 2007. The total estimated cost of the four-boat conversion program is about $4.0 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10278/
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issue for Congress
The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $739 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-78, the lead ship in the Navy's proposed CVN-21 class of aircraft carriers. The budget also requests $45 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-79, the second ship in the class. The Navy wants to procure CVN-78 in FY2008 and CVN-79 in FY2012. The House and Senate versions of the FY2007 defense authorization bill (H.R. 5122/S. 2766) support procurement of CVN-78 and CVN-79 but differ on certain items relating to aircraft carrier acquisition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10285/
Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)) and CG(X) Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $2,568 million in partial procurement funding for the first two DDG-1000 destroyers. The House version of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill (H.R. 5631) recommends approving this requested funding to instead fully fund the procurement of one DDG-1000. For a longer discussion of the DDG-1000 and CG(X), see CRS Report FL32109, Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10272/
Unmanned Vehicles for U.S. Naval Forces: Background and Issues for Congress
Unmanned vehicles (UVs) are viewed as a key element of the effort to transform U.S. military forces. The Department of the Navy may eventually acquire every major kind of UV. Navy and Marine Corps UV programs raise several potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10259/
Unmanned Vehicles for U.S. Naval Forces: Background and Issues for Congress
Unmanned vehicles (UVs) are viewed as a key element of the effort to transform U.S. military forces. The Department of the Navy may eventually acquire every major kind of UV. Navy and Marine Corps UV programs raise several potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10260/
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $739 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-78, the first ship in the CVN-21 class of aircraft carriers, and $45 million in advance procurement funding for the aircraft carrier CVN-79, the second ship in the class. The House- and Senate-reported versions of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill (H.R. 5631) recommend approving this request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10287/
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $739 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-78, the first ship in the CVN-21 class of aircraft carriers, and $45 million in advance procurement funding for the aircraft carrier CVN-79, the second ship in the class. The House version of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill (H.R. 5631) recommends approving this request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10286/
Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview discussion on the modernization of U.S. military tactical aircraft, meaning fighter aircraft, strike-fighters, and attack planes. This CRS report discusses and presents FY2010 legislative activity on issues relating to U.S. tactical aircraft in general. For several years now, a central issue relating to tactical aircraft in general has been the overall affordability of the Department of Defense's (DOD's) plans for modernizing the tactical aircraft force. A second key issue concerns the future of the U.S. industrial base for designing and manufacturing tactical aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26243/
Department of Defense Food Procurement: Background and Status
Military food items, also known as subsistence items, are generally procured under the auspices of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), an agency of the Department of Defense (DOD) which provides worldwide logistics support for the U.S. military services. Under DLA, the Defense Supply Center (DCSP) is the inventory control point for food, clothing, textiles, medicines, medical equipment, general and industrial supplies and services for the military, their eligible dependents, and other non-DOD customers worldwide. This report will describe the origin, authority, and policy in military food procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10644/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007, FY2008, and FY2009 budget submissions, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. In passing the FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress included measures establishing demonstration projects intended to find ways to contain costs through increased use of preventive care services by TRICARE beneficiaries. The scope of these measures are limited. Defense health care spending will likely remain an issue for the DOD in the next Administration, and Congress can anticipate being asked to consider new proposals to constrain costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10667/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007, FY2008, and FY2009 budget submissions, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. In passing the FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress included measures establishing demonstration projects intended to find ways to contain costs through increased use of preventive care services by TRICARE beneficiaries. The scope of these measures are limited. Defense health care spending will likely remain an issue for the DOD in the next Administration, and Congress can anticipate being asked to consider new proposals to constrain costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10665/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007, FY2008, and FY2009 budget submissions, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. In passing the FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress included measures establishing demonstration projects intended to find ways to contain costs through increased use of preventive care services by TRICARE beneficiaries. The scope of these measures are limited. Defense health care spending will likely remain an issue for the DOD in the next Administration, and Congress can anticipate being asked to consider new proposals to constrain costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10664/
Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress
Of the 282 ships in the Navy at the end of FY2005, 54 were nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs). The Navy is planning to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including 48 SSNs. The FY2007-FY2001 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) proposes maintaining the one-per-year procurement rate through FY2001, and then increasing the rate to two per year in FY2012. Issues for Congress include the following: Is 48 the correct number of SSNs to meet future needs? Should the start of two-per-year Virginia-class procurement be accelerated from FY2012 to an earlier year, such as FY2009, so as to come closer to maintaining a force of 48 SSNs in the 2020s-2030s? How should the submarine design and engineering base be maintained in coming years? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10419/
Costs of Major U.S. Wars and Recent U.S. Overseas Military Operations
This report presents the data on the costs of U.S. overseas military operations. Table 1 provides estimated costs of major U.S. conflicts in the 20th century. Table 2 shows the incremental costs to DOD of smaller operations within the past decade.1 Tables 3 and 4 show an annual breakdown of the incremental costs of U.S. peace and security commitments from FY1991 through FY2000, including ongoing and completed operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6990/
"Fast Track" Congressional Consideration of Recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission
The recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission will automatically take effect unless, within a stated period after the recommendations are submitted to the House and Senate, Congress adopts a joint resolution of disapproval rejecting them in their entirety. Congressional consideration of this disapproval resolution is not governed by the regular rules of the House and Senate, but by special expedited or “fast track” procedures laid out in statute. This report describes these expedited parliamentary procedures and explains how they differ from the regular legislative processes of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7636/
Military Base Closures: The 2005 BRAC Commission
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Military Aircraft, the F/A-18EF Super Hornet Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup
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Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup
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Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup
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Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress
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Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress
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Department of Defense Food Procurement: Background and Status
In an effort to reduce costs, adopt commercial practices, and gain technological advantages, the DOD Food Policy Council directed the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia (DSCP) to establish a common food management system. Under DLA, DSCP is the inventory control point for food, clothing, textiles, medicines, medical equipment, general and industrial supplies and services for the military, their eligible dependents, and other non-DOD customers worldwide; under DSCP, the Subsistence Directorate serves as the operational manager for all food operations. This report will describe the origin, authority, policy, and military food acquisition process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6786/
"Fast Track" Congressional Consideration of Recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission
The recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission will automatically take effect unless, within a stated period after the recommendations are submitted to the House and Senate, Congress adopts a joint resolution of disapproval rejecting them in their entirety. Congressional consideration of this disapproval resolution is not governed by the regular rules of the House and Senate, but by special expedited or “fast track” procedures laid out in statute. This report describes these expedited parliamentary procedures and explains how they differ from the regular legislative processes of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6783/
Navy Ship Procurement Rate and the Planned Size of the Navy: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS): Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress
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