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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Act and TMDLs
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs417/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4077/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2340/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1524/
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts Under Zedillo, December 1994 to March 1998
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs600/
Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)
This report discusses the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program which regulates pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained; section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. The report focuses on new challenges facing the TMDL program, including more complex TMDLs, larger scale impairments, and nonpoint sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122259/
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Zedillo and Fox, December 1994-March 2001
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1537/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
Increasing violence perpetrated by drug trafficking organizations and other criminal groups is threatening citizen security and governance in Mexico. Escalating violence has increased U.S. concerns about stability in Mexico, a key political and economic ally, and about the possibility of violence spilling over into the United States. In recent years, U.S.-Mexican security cooperation has increased significantly, largely as a result of the development and implementation of the Mérida Initiative, a counterdrug and anticrime assistance package for Mexico and Central America that was first proposed in October 2007. This report looks at the funding and Congressional oversight for this Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93841/
Administrative Separations for Misconduct: An Alternative or Companion to Military Courts-Martial
The recent reports of abuse of prisoners held by U.S. military personnel have raised questions about how the armed forces control servicemembers. Congress, under the authorities vested in it by the U.S. Constitution, has enacted procedures for addressing misconduct by servicemembers. One such procedure is an administrative separation under which a member’s continued suitability for service is determined. Administrative separations are non-punitive and can be initiated for a number of reasons, including misconduct or criminal offenses. They may be used in place of or after the servicemember has been subject to a court-martial or nonjudicial punishment. This report provides an overview of administrative separations as an alternative or companion to courts-martial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9293/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report looks at the funding and Congressional oversight for the U.S.-Mexican governments joint effort to curb drug trafficking and violence via the Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103104/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt. U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103184/
Arrest and Detention of Material Witnesses and the USA PATRIOT Act and Terrorism Reauthorization Act (H.R. 3199): A Sketch
Section 12 of the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act (H.R. 3199), as reported by the House Judiciary Committee, directed the Department of Justice to review the detention of individuals under the federal material witness statute, including their length of detention], conditions of access to counsel, frequency of access to counsel, offense at issue, and frequency of appearance before a grand jury. This report illustrates the level of controversy easily generated by material witness statutes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7361/
Arrest and Detention of Material Witnesses: Federal Law In Brief and Section 12 of the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act (H.R. 3199)
This report is an overview of the law under the federal material witness statute which authorizes the arrest of material witnesses, permits their release under essentially the same bail laws that apply to federal criminal defendants, but favors their release after their depositions have taken. A list of citations to comparable state statutes and a bibliography of law review articles and notes are appended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7306/
The Interagency Security Committee and Security Standards for Federal Buildings
The federal government owns or leases 3.7 billion square feet of office space, which may be vulnerable to acts of terrorism and other forms of violence. The September 2001 terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center renewed concerns about the vulnerability of federal buildings to bombing or other forms of attack. This report describes the creation and function of the Interagency Security Committee (ISC), which oversees the physical security of federal facilities. This report includes information on the ISC's 2007-2008 Action Plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10528/
The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement
This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. The congressional debate surrounding the agreement has mostly centered on the violence issues in Colombia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31485/
Arms Shipments to Iran
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9063/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9396/
Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9153/
USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006 (S. 2271)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8694/
U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5992/
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5059/
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5058/
USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006 (S. 2271)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8489/
USA PATRIOT Act Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8962/
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9559/
Pakistan-U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9450/
Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9445/
The War Crimes Act: Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9563/
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9561/
North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10856/
U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8463/
Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America
In October 2007, the United States and Mexico announced the Mérida Initiative, a multi-year proposal for $1.4 billion in U.S. assistance to Mexico and Central America aimed at combating drug trafficking, gangs, and organized crime. This report outlines the various appropriations and other foreign aid measures outlined in the Mérida Initiative and what future actions regarding this ongoing effort will include. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10729/
Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America
In October 2007, the United States and Mexico announced the Mérida Initiative, a multi-year proposal for $1.4 billion in U.S. assistance to Mexico and Central America aimed at combating drug trafficking, gangs, and organized crime. This report outlines the various appropriations and other foreign aid measures outlined in the Mérida Initiative and what future actions regarding this ongoing effort will include. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10730/
USA PATRIOT Act: Background and Comparison of House- and Senate-approved Reauthorization and Related Legislative Action
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7302/
Terrorism Legislation: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6998/
USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199): A Legal Analysis of the Conference Bill
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8131/
USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199): A Side-by-Side Comparison of Existing Law, H.R. 3199 (Conference) and H.R. 3199 (Senate Passed)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8054/
USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7357/
USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Proposals and Related Matters in Brief
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7354/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6678/
The USA PATRIOT Act: A Legal Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2384/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6169/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5791/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5789/
Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1651/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt. U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122295/
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report looks at the funding and Congressional oversight for this the joint U.S.-Mexico effort to curb drug trafficking and violence via the Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103105/
The USA PATRIOT Act: A Sketch
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2393/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of the key issues for Congress related to Egypt and information on U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, as well as addressing the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306543/
Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues
In October 2007, the United States and Mexico announced the Mérida Initiative, a three-year proposal for $1.4 billion in U.S. assistance to Mexico and Central America aimed at combating drug trafficking, gangs, and organized crime. This report provides an overview and discussion of the funding provided for Mérida, and presents several issues that Congress may consider as it oversees implementation of the Initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26132/