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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Date: June 29, 1999
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Forfeiture has survived through time in American law, and since 1984, the use of forfeiture statutes to divest felons of their spoils has increased substantially. This report reviews the case law which raises the issue concerning many relative to whether some civil forfeiture proceedings constitute punishment which may violate the Eighth Amendment's excessive fines clause.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Date: October 15, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Bowman, Steven R & Barel, Helit
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture

EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture

Date: February 3, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In August 1999 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations to clarify and strengthen the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Section 303(d) requires states to identify surface waters for which wastewater discharge limits are not stringent enough to achieve water quality standards and to allocate further required pollutant reductions among sources in order to attain those standards. This report discusses the major changes in EPA's proposals, compared with existing regulatory program requirements, and potential impacts on agriculture and forestry sources, which have been controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Victims' Rights Amendment: Proposals to Amend the United States Constitution in the 106th Congress

Victims' Rights Amendment: Proposals to Amend the United States Constitution in the 106th Congress

Date: May 12, 2000
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law

Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law

Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law

The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law

Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of the Final Revised Rule

EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of the Final Revised Rule

Date: July 18, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the final rule and the key modifications of the August 1999 proposal. The final rule builds on the current TMDL regulatory program and adds details, specific requirements, and deadlines. It retains the basic elements of the 1999 proposal for more comprehensive identification of impaired waters, schedules and minimum elements for TMDLs, and new public participation requirements. At the same time, dropped from the final rule are several provisions that were most controversial in the proposal, including some potentially affecting agriculture and forestry, one that would have required pollutant discharge offsets in some circumstances, and one that would have required states to identify waters threatened but not yet impaired by pollution
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001

Date: August 21, 2000
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues

Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues

Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prisons: Policy Options for Congress

Prisons: Policy Options for Congress

Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review

Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review

Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Meltz, Robert & McCarthy, James E
Description: In May, 2000, the Supreme Court agreed to review this decision, raising the prospect of a major pronouncement on the non-delegation doctrine, the enforceability of the revised ozone standard, and the role of compliance costs in setting nationwide air quality standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Current Palestinian Uprising: Al-Aqsa Intifadah

The Current Palestinian Uprising: Al-Aqsa Intifadah

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Ruebner, Joshua; Mark, Clyde R; Katzman, Kenneth & Prados, Alfred B
Description: Facing a September 13, 2000 deadline for concluding a comprehensive Israeli- Palestinian agreement on all permanent status issues, President Bill Clinton convened a trilateral summit with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Chairman Yasser Arafat at Camp David on July 11, 2000. The summit, which lasted until July 24, 2000, did not produce an agreement. Members of 106th Congress responded to the al-Aqsa Intifadah by introducing bills that supported Israel’s actions, encouraged the U.S. Administration to oppose any anti-Israel resolutions in the United Nations, called upon Palestinians to negotiate a resolution, and proposed cutting foreign assistance to the Palestinians if they did not stop the uprising.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Superfund and Natural Resource Damages

Superfund and Natural Resource Damages

Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Reisch, Mark
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Date: January 9, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes: An Overview of Legislation in the 106th Congress

Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes: An Overview of Legislation in the 106th Congress

Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses federal mandatory minimum sentencing statutes, which demand that execution or incarceration follow criminal conviction. They cover drug dealing, murdering federal officials, and using a gun to commit a federal crime. They circumscribe judicial sentencing discretion. They have been criticized as unthinkingly harsh and incompatible with a rational sentencing guideline system; yet they have also been embraced as hallmarks of truth in sentence and a certain means of incapacitating the criminally dangerous.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Victims' Rights Amendment in the 106th Congress: Overview of Suggestions to Amend the Constitution

Victims' Rights Amendment in the 106th Congress: Overview of Suggestions to Amend the Constitution

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Date: January 19, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crime Control: The Federal Response

Crime Control: The Federal Response

Date: January 24, 2001
Creator: Teasley, David
Description: Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and school violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DNA Evidence: Legislative Initiatives in the 106th Congress

DNA Evidence: Legislative Initiatives in the 106th Congress

Date: January 26, 2001
Creator: Fischer, Eric A
Description: DNA evidence is a powerful forensic tool in criminal cases. Its use and capabilities have increased substantially since it was first introduced in the late 1980s. That growth has led to the emergence of the following issues that were considered by the 106th Congress in legislative initiatives: eliminating the nationwide backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples, expanding the kinds of offenders who are profiled, providing opportunities for post-conviction testing of DNA evidence, and continuing development of forensic science capabilities. This report discusses those and related issues and the legislation proposed and enacted to address them. It begins by describing provisions in prior federal law and then discusses issues and the legislation proposed, including the enacted DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (H.R. 4640, which became P.L. 106-546).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress

Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 30, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department