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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: May 14, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently engaged in a series of regulatory actions to address the transport of ozone pollution in the eastern United States. This report reviews this situation with respect to an EPA-proposed Ozone Transport Rule and other activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs

Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs

Date: May 20, 1998
Creator: Laney, Garrine P
Description: The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fifth Amendment Privilege Against SelfIncrimination May Not Be Extended in Cases Where Only a Foreign Prosecution Is Possible

Fifth Amendment Privilege Against SelfIncrimination May Not Be Extended in Cases Where Only a Foreign Prosecution Is Possible

Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Several courts in the various circuits have considered whether the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination applies to fear of incrimination in foreign countries, and they have come to divergent conclusions. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari in United States v. Balsys, and on June 25, 1998, decided that a witness may not invoke the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination in which only a foreign prosecution is possible. This report provides background on United States v. Balsys and examines the court's opinion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion.
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Terrorism: U.S. Response to Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania: A New Policy Direction?

Terrorism: U.S. Response to Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania: A New Policy Direction?

Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns

The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns

Date: January 6, 1999
Creator: Grigorian, Ellen
Description: This report discusses the events leading to the creation of a permanent international criminal tribunal and U.S. perspectives on the Court including: problematic provisions in the ICC Treaty, congressional considerations, and potential implications for U.S. foreign policy.
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Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report gives an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which was intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials by American corporations. It includes information about the original legislation, amendments in 1988, and amendments in 1998 that brought the legislation into conformance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's agreement on bribery.
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Gun Industry Liability: Lawsuits and Legislation

Gun Industry Liability: Lawsuits and Legislation

Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report discusses gun industry liability issues after the Maryland Court of Appeals announced that it was changing the common law "to hold the manufacturers and marketers of Saturday Night Special handguns strictly liable to innocent persons who suffer gunshot injuries from the criminal use of their products." Kelley v. R.G. Industries, Inc., 497 A.2d 1143, 1159 (Md. 1985).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The D.C. Circuit Remands the Ozone and Particulate Matter Clean-Air Standards:

The D.C. Circuit Remands the Ozone and Particulate Matter Clean-Air Standards:

Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert & McCarthy, James E
Description: On May 14, 1999, in American Trucking Ass'ns v. EPA, a U.S. court of Appeals ruled that deficiencies in EPA's promulgation of new primary and secondary air quality standards required that they be remanded to the agency for further consideration. The decision is controversial, in part because the two-judge majority opinion relied principally on a long-moribund legal doctrine known as the nondelegation doctrine. The decision, if it survives appeal, will thus have implications for all delegations of congressional authority to agencies. In addition, its holding that the revised ozone ambient standard cannot be enforced has sparkled debate. By itself, however, the decision is unlikely to have major short-term effects on the ozone and particulate matter control programs
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: June 15, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states with new tool to address the problem of interstate transport of air pollutants. This report discusses the actions undertaken as a direct result of this act, additional pollution reduction enforcement measures pursued by the EPA, and actions undertaken by states to reduce offending emissions not in compliance with these measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Date: June 29, 1999
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Forfeiture has survived through time in American law, and since 1984, the use of forfeiture statutes to divest felons of their spoils has increased substantially. This report reviews the case law which raises the issue concerning many relative to whether some civil forfeiture proceedings constitute punishment which may violate the Eighth Amendment's excessive fines clause.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Date: October 15, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Bowman, Steven R & Barel, Helit
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture

EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture

Date: February 3, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In August 1999 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations to clarify and strengthen the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Section 303(d) requires states to identify surface waters for which wastewater discharge limits are not stringent enough to achieve water quality standards and to allocate further required pollutant reductions among sources in order to attain those standards. This report discusses the major changes in EPA's proposals, compared with existing regulatory program requirements, and potential impacts on agriculture and forestry sources, which have been controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Victims' Rights Amendment: Proposals to Amend the United States Constitution in the 106th Congress

Victims' Rights Amendment: Proposals to Amend the United States Constitution in the 106th Congress

Date: May 12, 2000
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law

Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law

Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law

The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law

Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of the Final Revised Rule

EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of the Final Revised Rule

Date: July 18, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the final rule and the key modifications of the August 1999 proposal. The final rule builds on the current TMDL regulatory program and adds details, specific requirements, and deadlines. It retains the basic elements of the 1999 proposal for more comprehensive identification of impaired waters, schedules and minimum elements for TMDLs, and new public participation requirements. At the same time, dropped from the final rule are several provisions that were most controversial in the proposal, including some potentially affecting agriculture and forestry, one that would have required pollutant discharge offsets in some circumstances, and one that would have required states to identify waters threatened but not yet impaired by pollution
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001

Date: August 21, 2000
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues

Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues

Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prisons: Policy Options for Congress

Prisons: Policy Options for Congress

Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review

Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review

Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Meltz, Robert & McCarthy, James E
Description: In May, 2000, the Supreme Court agreed to review this decision, raising the prospect of a major pronouncement on the non-delegation doctrine, the enforceability of the revised ozone standard, and the role of compliance costs in setting nationwide air quality standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department