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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Juvenile Justice Funding Trends

Juvenile Justice Funding Trends

Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the juvenile justice grant programs and the overall appropriation administered by the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). There is no federal juvenile justice system, however the government uses federal juvenile justice entities and grant programs in order to influence the states' systems. Eligibility for some of these grant programs is tied to certain mandates that the states must adhere to in order to receive federal funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law: An Abbreviated Sketch

Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law: An Abbreviated Sketch

Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses the application of American criminal law outside the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Botswana: The San (Bushmen) Rights Case

Botswana: The San (Bushmen) Rights Case

Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Townsend, Jeff
Description: This report discusses the case of San people of Botswana against the government of Botswana.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses legislation regarding the death penalty in the 109th Congress. The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (Reauthorization Act) contains a number of death penalty related provisions. Some create new federal capital offenses; some add the death penalty as a sentencing option in the case of preexisting federal crimes; some alter the procedural attributes of federal capital cases. Other proposals offered during the 109th Congress would have followed the same pattern: some new crimes; some new penalties for old crimes; and some procedural adjustments. Only one of the other proposals, the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, passed, although at least one House approved several others. Three proposals do not fit the pattern; they either would have abolished the death penalty as a federal sentencing alternative or would have imposed a moratorium upon executions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses legislation regarding the death penalty in the 109th Congress. The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (Reauthorization Act) contains a number of death penalty related provisions. Some create new federal capital offenses; some add the death penalty as a sentencing option in the case of preexisting federal crimes; some alter the procedural attributes of federal capital cases. Other proposals offered during the 109th Congress would have followed the same pattern: some new crimes; some new penalties for old crimes; and some procedural adjustments. Only one of the other proposals, the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, passed, although at least one House approved several others. Three proposals do not fit the pattern; they either would have abolished the death penalty as a federal sentencing alternative or would have imposed a moratorium upon executions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gangs in Central America

Gangs in Central America

Date: March 27, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country and regional approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, as well as some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data where applicable. Finally, the third section discusses issues about the federal role in missing adult cases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, and some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data for FY2002 through FY2008, where applicable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Date: February 11, 2015
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, as well as some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally-funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data where applicable. Finally, the third section discusses issues about the federal role in missing adult cases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prison Litigation Reform Act: Survey of Post-Reform Act Prisoners' Civil Rights Cases

Prison Litigation Reform Act: Survey of Post-Reform Act Prisoners' Civil Rights Cases

Date: November 4, 1997
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy
Description: This report summarizes the Prison Litigation Reform Act and surveys post- Reform Act court decisions interpreting the Act and other cases concerning prisoners' civil rights.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of FY2016 Appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS)

Overview of FY2016 Appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS)

Date: February 23, 2015
Creator: James, Nathan
Description: This report tracks and describes actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2016 appropriations for the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) accounts. It also provides an overview of FY2015 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as part of the annual appropriation for CJS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes: An Overview of Legislation in the 107th Congress

Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes: An Overview of Legislation in the 107th Congress

Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report examines legislation in the 107th Congress pertaining to federal mandatory minimum sentencing statutes (mandatory minimums), which demand that execution or incarceration follow criminal conviction. They cover drug dealing and using a gun to commit a federal crime, among other crimes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA, H.R. 5724): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues

Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues

Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report examines policy issues surrounding detention of aliens, including concerns about the number of aliens subject to mandatory detention and the justness of mandatory detention, especially as it is applied to asylum seekers arriving without proper documentation. Some have raised concerns about the length of time in detention for aliens who have been ordered removed. Additionally, issues have been raised about the amount of detention space available to house DHS detainees. Another area of uncertainty is the Attorney General’s role in the detention of noncitizens, since the creation of DHS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Crime and Forfeiture: The Innocent Third Party

Date: June 29, 1999
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Forfeiture has survived through time in American law, and since 1984, the use of forfeiture statutes to divest felons of their spoils has increased substantially. This report reviews the case law which raises the issue concerning many relative to whether some civil forfeiture proceedings constitute punishment which may violate the Eighth Amendment's excessive fines clause.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, which requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Capital Offenses: An Overview of Substantive and Procedural Law

Federal Capital Offenses: An Overview of Substantive and Procedural Law

Date: November 18, 2014
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: Murder, committed under any of more than 50 jurisdictional circumstances, is a federal capital offense. So are treason, espionage, and certain drug kingpin offenses. The Federal Death Penalty Act and related provisions establish the procedure that must be followed before a defendant convicted of a federal capital offense may be executed. This report is an overview of the law in the area.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fifth Amendment Privilege Against SelfIncrimination May Not Be Extended in Cases Where Only a Foreign Prosecution Is Possible

Fifth Amendment Privilege Against SelfIncrimination May Not Be Extended in Cases Where Only a Foreign Prosecution Is Possible

Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.
Description: Several courts in the various circuits have considered whether the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination applies to fear of incrimination in foreign countries, and they have come to divergent conclusions. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari in United States v. Balsys, and on June 25, 1998, decided that a witness may not invoke the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination in which only a foreign prosecution is possible. This report provides background on United States v. Balsys and examines the court's opinion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report examines federal law regarding obscenity and indecency. The First Amendment provides: “Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.” In general, the First Amendment protects pornography, with this term being used to mean any erotic material. The Supreme Court, however, has held that the First Amendment does not protect two types of pornography: obscenity and child pornography. Consequently, they may be banned on the basis of their content, and federal law prohibits the mailing of obscenity, as well as its transport or receipt in interstate or foreign commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report looks at inadequacies present in the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) which prevent the Center from adequately performing its duty. These inadequacies include issues with agency organization, lack of resources, and a focus on threats from Yemen over domestic threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional anti-trafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising several issues for policy consideration that may be helpful as the 109th Congress continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Description: This report discusses the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 2000 which reauthorized most of the original act’s programs and created new grant programs to prevent sexual assaults on campuses, assist victims of violence with civil legal concerns, create transitional housing for victims of domestic abuse (administered by HHS), and enhance protections for elderly and disabled victims of domestic violence. VAWA 2000, also, created a pilot program for safe custody exchange for families of domestic violence.
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Science, State, Justice, Commerce and Related Agencies (House)/ Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

Science, State, Justice, Commerce and Related Agencies (House)/ Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

Date: December 23, 2005
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Epstein, Susan B.
Description: This report monitors actions taken by the 109th Congress for the House’s Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies (SSJC) and the Senate’s Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) FY2006 appropriations legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department