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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
In Re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001: Dismissals of Claims Against Saudi Defendants Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)

In Re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001: Dismissals of Claims Against Saudi Defendants Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)

Date: October 29, 2008
Creator: Henning, Anna C.
Description: This report summarizes the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) and jurisdiction in cases against foreign defendants and analyzes the recent court of appeals decision. This report examines the legal bases for those dismissals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report examines how the Department of Energy's (DOE) polygraph testing program has evolved and reviews certain scientific findings with regard to the polygraph's scientific validity. Several issues include whether: DOE's new screening program is focused on an appropriate number of individuals occupying only the most sensitive positions; the program should be expanded in order to adequately safeguard certain classified information; further research into the polygraph's scientific validity is needed; there are possible alternatives to the polygraph; and whether DOE should continue polygraph screening.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Justice (DOJ) Appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009

Department of Justice (DOJ) Appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009

Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Krouse, William J.; Franco, Celinda & James, Nathan
Description: This report provides a discussion of funding for the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, including background information, a breakdown of funding from FY2008 regular and supplemental funding, and budget requests for FY2009.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, and some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data for FY2002 through FY2008, where applicable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alien Smuggling: Recent Legislative Developments

Alien Smuggling: Recent Legislative Developments

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report discusses issues surrounding aliens within the United States including an overview of currently-proscribed activities, exemptions, sentencing provisions, and proposed legislative changes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: In the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., U.S. attention to terrorism in Latin America intensified, with an increase in bilateral and regional cooperation. Latin American nations strongly condemned the attacks. This report outlines the U.S.-Latin American relationship in regards to terrorism, including several pieces of international counterterrorism legislation, including the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism and the Organization of American States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: In the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., U.S. attention to terrorism in Latin America intensified, with an increase in bilateral and regional cooperation. Latin American nations strongly condemned the attacks. This report outlines the U.S.-Latin American relationship in regards to terrorism, including several pieces of international counterterrorism legislation, including the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism and the Organization of American States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Money Laundering: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1956 and Related Federal Criminal Law

Money Laundering: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1956 and Related Federal Criminal Law

Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: Money laundering is a federal crime, commonly understood as the process of cleansing the taint from the proceeds of crime. This report describes in detail the various aspects of money laundering in regards to federal criminal law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

Date: November 6, 2008
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
Description: This report discusses the issue of North Korea's inclusion on the U.S. list of terrorism-supporting countries, which has been a major issue in U.S.-North Korean diplomacy since 2000, particularly in connection with negotiations over North Korea's nuclear program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Crime Control: Background, Legislation, and Issues

Federal Crime Control: Background, Legislation, and Issues

Date: October 27, 2008
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M. & Seghetti, Lisa M
Description: This report discusses the prevention and control of domestic crime, which has traditionally been a responsibility of state and local governments, with the federal government playing more of a supportive role.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gangs in Central America

Gangs in Central America

Date: March 27, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country and regional approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gangs in Central America

Gangs in Central America

Date: October 17, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Compulsory DNA Collection: A Fourth Amendment Analysis

Compulsory DNA Collection: A Fourth Amendment Analysis

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Henning, Anna C.
Description: This report examines compulsory DNA collection by law enforcement and its implications in regards to 4th amendment protections by examining legal precedents and considering the contemporary scientific understanding of DNA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and deportation/removal. It opens with an overview of the terror-related grounds as they evolved through key legislation enacted in recent years. The section on current law explains the legal definitions of "terrorist activity," "engage in terrorist activity," and "terrorist organization," and describes the terror-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal. The report then discusses the alien screening process to determine admissibility and to identify possible terrorists, both during the visa issuance process abroad and the inspections process at U.S. ports of entry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Burma and Transnational Crime

Burma and Transnational Crime

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Wyler, Liana Sun
Description: This report analyzes the primary actors driving transnational crime in Burma, the forms of transnational crime occurring, and current U.S. policy in combating these crimes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.; Garcia, Michael John & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Combatant Status Review Tribunal (CSRT) procedures, summarizes court cases related to the detentions and the use of military commissions, and summarizes the Detainee Treatment Act (DTA), as amended by the Military Commissions Act of 2006, analyzing its effects on detainee-related litigation in federal court. The report summarizes pending legislation and provides an analysis of relevant constitutional issues that may have some bearing on Congress's options with respect to the Guantanamo detainees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations

Date: May 30, 2008
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations, with a focus on the Administration's FY2009 budget request for ATF.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie & Doyle, Charles
Description: It is a federal crime to intentionally wiretap or electronically eavesdrop on the conversation of another without a court order or the consent of one of the parties to the conversation. Statutory exceptions to these general prohibitions permit judicially supervised wiretapping or electronic eavesdropping conducted for law enforcement or foreign intelligence gathering purposes. Similar regimes - proscriptions with exceptions for government access under limited circumstances - exist for telephone records, e-mail and other forms of electronic communications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Stevens, Gina & Doyle, Charles
Description: This report provides an overview of federal law governing wiretapping and electronic eavesdropping. It also appends citations to state law in the area and contains a bibliography of legal commentary as well as the text of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). This report also includes a brief summary of the recently expired Protect America Act, P.L. 110-55 and of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, P.L. 110-261 (H.R. 6304).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The False Claims Act, the Allison Engine Decision, and Possible Effects on Health Care Fraud Enforcement

The False Claims Act, the Allison Engine Decision, and Possible Effects on Health Care Fraud Enforcement

Date: November 6, 2008
Creator: Staman, Jennifer
Description: The False Claims Act (FCA), an important tool for combating fraud against the U.S. government, generally provides that a person who knowingly submits, or causes to be submitted, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to the U.S. government may be subject to civil penalties and damages. This report provides an overview of the FCA and the Allison Engine decision, analyzes how this decision could affect certain FCA health care claims, and discusses the proposed False Claims Correction Acts (S. 2041 and H.R. 4854), which, if enacted, could limit the application of the Allison Engine decision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) -- Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) -- Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 8, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of activities related to what the Administration refers to as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The Navy states that as of February 2008, more than 11,300 Navy sailors (including Individual Augmentees) were ashore supporting ground forces in the U.S. Central Command region (including Iraq and Afghanistan). The Navy's role in the GWOT raises several potential oversight issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) -- Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) -- Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 29, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of activities related to what the Administration refers to as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The Navy states that as of February 2008, more than 11,300 Navy sailors (including Individual Augmentees) were ashore supporting ground forces in the U.S. Central Command region (including Iraq and Afghanistan). The Navy's role in the GWOT raises several potential oversight issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
United States v. Santos: "Proceeds" in Federal Criminal Money Laundering Statute, 18 U.S.C. Section 1956, Means "Profits," Not "Gross Receipts"

United States v. Santos: "Proceeds" in Federal Criminal Money Laundering Statute, 18 U.S.C. Section 1956, Means "Profits," Not "Gross Receipts"

Date: June 13, 2008
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: On June 2, 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court, in United States v. Santos (No. 96-1005), vacated convictions of the operator of an illegal lottery and one of his runners who had been charged with conducting financial transactions involving the "proceeds" of an illegal lottery and one of his runners who had been charged with conducting financial transactions involving the "proceeds" of an illegal gaming business. The ruling is that "proceeds," as used in this money laundering statute, means "profits" rather than "gross receipts" of the underlying unlawful activity. This report analyzes this decision, the factors contributing to the decision, the principles upon which the decision was based, and the possible future effects of the ruling.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: "Border Searches" Under the Fourth Amendment

Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: "Border Searches" Under the Fourth Amendment

Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report addresses the scope of the government's authority to search and seize individuals at the border pursuant to the constitutional framework that encompasses the border search exception to the warrant and probable cause requirements of the Fourth Amendment. This report also describes the varying levels of suspicion generally associated with each type of border search as interpreted by the courts. In addition, this report highlights some of the border security recommendations made by the 9/11 Commission and legislative actions taken in the 108th, 109th, and 110th Congresses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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