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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Average Years of Service for Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 1st - 111th Congresses

Average Years of Service for Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 1st - 111th Congresses

Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: Glassman, Matthew Eric & Hemlin, Erin
Description: The average tenure of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives at the beginning of each Congress has varied substantially since 1789. The purpose of this report is to provide a Congress-by-Congress summary of the average years of service for Senators and Representatives for the First through the 111th Congresses. The report contains a brief summary of some of the explanations by political scientists and others for the various changes in the average years of service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services

Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services

Date: December 15, 1982
Creator: Barry, Rozanne M & Ovenshire, Ruthann
Description: This is an annotated guide to publications and other sources of information useful to Members of Congress and their staffs, covering congressional office management, the organization and operation of Congress, legislative responsibilities, services to constituents, and other duties of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies

Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Biennial budgeting is a concept that may include several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, or two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three. Most proposals incorporate all three factors. This report presents the view of proponent and critics of biennial budgeting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used

Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: This report provides background information regarding the bill and joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: When Congress seeks to pass a law, it uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval. This report briefly describes this process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses

Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: In addition to bill and/or joint resolution this report presents two other acts of congress; 1) nominations and 2) treaties. It also discusses the characteristics and uses of six different kind of business before Congress, such as designation, origin, deadline for action, requirements for approval, and use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department