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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A U.S.-centric Chronology of the International Climate Change Negotiations
This report provides an overview and analysis of congressional advisory commissions, information on the general statutory structure of a congressional commission, and a catalog of congressional commissions created since the 101st Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462190/
Health Benefits for Members of Congress
This report covers health benefits made available to Members of Congress through federal government employment, including Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), dental and vision insurance, flexible spending accounts, long-term care insurance, services at the Office of the Attending Physician and military hospitals, and Medicare. It also offers a comparison of FEHBP to health benefits offered by the private sector and state and local governments and a discussion of the effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on Members' health benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462875/
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. For each entity, information on the purpose, duration, appointment structure, and term of appointment is provided. Finally, information on the involvement of members of Congress in the appointment process is presented in a series of tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462678/
Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations
This report provides an overview and analysis of congressional advisory commissions, information on the general statutory structure of a congressional commission, and a catalog of congressional commissions created since the 101st Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501704/
Social Media in the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers several questions about the regulation of social media accounts in the House of Representatives, as social media accounts for official representational duties have increased. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505375/
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrate the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily-created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. For each entity, information on the purpose, duration, appointment structure, and term of appointment is provided. Finally, information on the involvement of members of Congress in the appointment process is presented in a series of tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503564/
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626926/
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627234/
Social Media in the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers several questions about the regulation of social media accounts in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627156/
Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations
This report provides an overview and analysis of congressional advisory commissions, information on the general statutory structure of a congressional commission, and a catalog of congressional commissions created since the 101st Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87127/
Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power
When conducting investigations of the executive branch, congressional committees and Members of Congress generally receive the information required for legislative needs. If agencies fail to cooperate or the President invokes executive privilege, Congress can turn to a number of legislative powers that are likely to compel compliance. The two techniques described in this report are the issuance of subpoenas and the holding of executive officials in contempt. These techniques usually lead to an accommodation that meets the needs of both branches. Litigation is used at times, but federal judges generally encourage congressional and executive parties to settle their differences out of court. The specific examples in this report explain how information disputes arise and how they are resolved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4023/
Health Benefits for Members of Congress
Report that covers health benefits made available to Members of Congress through federal government employment, including Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), dental and vision insurance, flexible spending accounts, long-term care insurance, services at the Office of the Attending Physician and military hospitals, and Medicare. It also offers a comparison of FEHBP to health benefits offered by the private sector and state and local governments and a discussion of the effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on Members' health benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228133/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 228 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7141/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005
Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7142/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1499/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5763/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2001
This report identifies the committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 209 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2074/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2003
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 219 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5725/
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as U.S. Senators or Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8092/
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as Senators or as Members of the House of Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8860/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5764/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1118/
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700875/
Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs
This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater recycling and treatment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795863/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2004
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 220 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795922/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 229 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795911/
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272077/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272056/
Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945
This report provides profiles of Senators and Representatives in selected Congresses since 1945. It includes data based on Representatives and Senators serving on the first day of the 79th-113th Congresses for several demographic characteristics such as age (including the oldest and youngest Members of the House and Senate), sex, previous occupation, race and ethnicity, education, religion, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282302/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report discusses the impact of women in Congress and historical information, such as the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African-American and Asian-Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282271/
Women in Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report discusses the impact of women in Congress and historical information, such as the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African-American and Asian-Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626970/
Brief Facts About Congressional Pensions
This report contains a table that lists the number of retired Members of Congress and the average amount of congressional pension they receive in retirement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26054/
Leaving Congress: House of Representatives and Senate Departures Data Since 198
Members of Congress leave the House or Senate for a variety of reasons; these may include resignation, death, or chamber action during a Congress, and retirement, electoral defeat, or pursuit of another office at the end of a Congress. This report discusses the number of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives who have left before the conclusion of a Congress since 1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31378/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267839/
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267886/
Post Employment, "Revolving Door," Restrictions for Legislative Branch Members and Employees
This report provides a brief discussion of the post-employment restrictions, often called "revolving door" laws, that are applicable to members, officers, and employees of Congress after they leave congressional service or employment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26097/
Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945
Questions about the characteristics of Members of Congress, including their age, education, previous occupations, and other descriptors, are of ongoing interest to Members, congressional staff, and constituents. Some of these questions may be asked in the context of representation, in efforts to evaluate the extent to which Members of Congress reflect their constituencies and the nation at large. In other instances, questions arise about how the characteristics of Members have changed over time, which may speak in part to the history of Congress. This report provides profiles of Senators and Representatives in selected Congresses since 1945. It includes data based on Representatives and Senators serving on the first day of the 79th, 82nd, 87th, 92nd, 97th, 102nd, and 107th–112th Congresses for several demographic characteristics, as well as the tenure of Member service in Congress. The characteristics discussed include age, including the oldest and youngest Members of the House and Senate; congressional service tenure; sex; previous occupation; race and ethnicity; education; religion; and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87220/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271999/
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) and examines spending patterns over three years--2005, 2006, and 2007. The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Members who were not in Congress for all of the first session of a Congress, whether the Member left Congress prior to the end of the year or entered any time after the beginning of the session, were also excluded. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272003/
Legislative Research for Congressional Staff: How to Find Documents and Other Resources
This report is one of a series of reports on legislative process and research; it is intended to serve as a finding aid to sources of information, such as documents, news articles, analysis, contacts and services, used in legislative research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284462/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462118/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463377/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462064/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463361/
Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff
The Congressional Research Service frequently receives inquiries about legislative planning. Legislative and office action plans are often used by congressional offices for almost every significant project, from organizing an extensive conference in the district or state to introducing and guiding legislation. A major action plan requires a firm understanding of the project's goal, a research strategy, and a time line for completing the project. This report presents some of the factors usually considered in preparing an action plan. The information is provided in three sections. The first provides an overview which lays out summary considerations. The second raises questions to consider in preparing an outline for a project. The third details a sample action plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491602/
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011
The average service tenure of members of the Senate and House of Representatives has varied substantially since 1789. This report presents data on member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490913/
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011
The average service tenure of members of the Senate and House of Representatives has varied substantially since 1789. This report presents data on member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491067/
Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Former Members of Congress
This report discusses the courtesies and privileges afforded to Members of the House and Senate, after they leave office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491446/
House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010
This report provides staffing levels in House and Senate Member, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491410/
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the MRA and examines spending patterns in the 109th Congress (2005 and 2006). The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Members who were not in Congress for all of 2005, whether the Member left Congress prior to the end of the year or entered any time after the beginning of the session, were also excluded. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491177/