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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: October 20, 2015
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report summarizes the points of order currently in effect under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in various other measures that have a direct impact on budget enforcement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Branch Agency Appointments: History, Processes, and Recent Actions

Legislative Branch Agency Appointments: History, Processes, and Recent Actions

Date: October 19, 2015
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report contains information on the legislative branch agency heads' appointment processes, length of tenures (if terms are set), reappointment or removal provisions (if any), salaries and benefits, and most recent appointments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enrollment of Legislation: Relevant Congressional Procedures

Enrollment of Legislation: Relevant Congressional Procedures

Date: October 14, 2015
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report discusses the enrollment process of bills and resolutions in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2015

Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2015

Date: October 13, 2015
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report details the evolution of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees' subcommittee structure from the 1920s to the present.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Date: October 2, 2015
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides links to cybersecurity legislation in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Date: September 17, 2015
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report provides historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief

Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief

Date: September 11, 2015
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie & Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). The act establishes a period for Congress to review any comprehensive agreement, during which certain presidential actions to provide relief from sanctions on Iran are barred.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: September 10, 2015
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey C.
Description: This report is a list of about 200 congressional liaison offices, intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Statutory Qualifications for Executive Branch Positions

Statutory Qualifications for Executive Branch Positions

Date: September 9, 2015
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report provides background on the framework for constitutional appointments, discusses Congress's constitutional authority to set qualifications for appointees, discusses congressional practices in this area, and provides related analysis and options. It also includes two tables with examples of existing positions with qualification requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Date: September 8, 2015
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have various targets, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, engaging in cybercrime, or intimidating political activists; additionally attributing an attack to a specific location can be difficult, which may make responding problematic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pope Francis and Selected Global Issues: Background for Papal Address to Congress

Pope Francis and Selected Global Issues: Background for Papal Address to Congress

Date: September 8, 2015
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare; Reese, Shawn; Straus, Jacob R.; Werner, James D. & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides Members of Congress with background information on Pope Francis and a summary of a few selected global issues of congressional interest that have figured prominently on his agenda. The background section on Pope Francis includes a biographical sketch of his life as Jorge Mario Bergoglio, followed by a brief overview of his papacy thus far. The report then identifies some--but not all--of the global issues of concern to Pope Francis. Those include environmental stewardship, poverty and inequality, peace and diplomacy, and human trafficking.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
History and Authority of the Joint Economic Committee

History and Authority of the Joint Economic Committee

Date: September 2, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report briefly discusses joint committees, which are composed of members from both the House and the Senate. The work of these committees generally involves conducting studies and overseeing aspects of congressional operations. This report focuses specifically on the Joint Economic Committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Senate Legislative Procedures: Published Sources of Information

Senate Legislative Procedures: Published Sources of Information

Date: August 26, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: The Senate publishes its rules, precedents, and other related information so that Senators and their staff have convenient access to the Senate’s legislative procedures and can gauge how those procedures are likely to apply in various situations. Information about the Senate’s legislative procedures is published in four official documents. This report briefly discusses these documents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Calendars of the House of Representatives

Calendars of the House of Representatives

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report describes the use of "calendars" in the House of Representatives, referring to (1) lists of measures and motions eligible for consideration and (2) documents that contain the eligible motions and information about the status of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status

Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report provides historical background on the development of the position of delegate to Congress and on the rights of a delegate once seated. Delegates, representing territories that had not yet achieved statehood, have served in the House since the late 1700s. In the 20th century, the concept of delegate grew to include representation of territories where the United States exercises some degree of control but were not expected to become states.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Committee Hearings: Arranging Witnesses

House Committee Hearings: Arranging Witnesses

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the selection of witnesses for House committee hearings. House committees and subcommittees pay careful attention to which viewpoints will be represented, who should testify, and the order and format for presenting witnesses. Witnesses do not have an inherent right to appear at a hearing but must be invited by a committee or subcommittee in order to testify; committees and subcommittees may also subpoena reluctant witnesses to appear at a hearing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Committee Hearings: Preparation

House Committee Hearings: Preparation

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report contains a checklist that identifies many of the tasks that need to be performed for committee hearings. Committee hearings provide Representatives an opportunity to gather information on, and draw attention to, legislation and issues within a committee's purview; conduct oversight of programs or agencies; and investigate allegations of mismanagement or wrongdoing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification

House Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report briefly discusses scheduling and notification requirements, and practices for House committee hearings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pairing in Congressional Voting: The House

Pairing in Congressional Voting: The House

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report discusses the practice of "pairing" for votes in the House of Representatives. Under certain procedural circumstances, a Member who is absent during a vote on the House floor may arrange with a Member on the opposite side of a specific question (who will be present) to announce that the Member who is present is forming a "pair" with the absent Member, thus allowing the absent Member to have his intended vote recorded.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Quorum Requirements in the House: Committee and Chamber

Quorum Requirements in the House: Committee and Chamber

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report discusses minimum quorum requirements established by House Rule XI, clause 2 for eight areas of committee activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals

Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals

Date: August 20, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides background on the historical frequency of federal funding gaps and shutdowns. It also discusses features of Automatic Continuing Resolutions (ACRs), arguments for and against ACRs, relevant Congressional actions, and proposals in the 112th through 114th Congresses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Committee Hearings: Witness Testimony

House Committee Hearings: Witness Testimony

Date: August 10, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the witness testimony process in House of Representatives committee hearings. Witnesses before House committees must generally file advance copies of their written testimony with the committee and then limit their oral testimony to brief summaries (Rule XI, clause 2(g)(5)). A question-and-answer period usually follows a witness's opening statement. Following hearings, committees usually publish the transcripts of witness testimony and questioning.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department