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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Grants-In-Aid: An Historical Perspective on Contemporary Issues

Federal Grants-In-Aid: An Historical Perspective on Contemporary Issues

Date: June 15, 2009
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report provides an historical synopsis of the evolving nature of federal grant-in-aid programs, focusing on the role Congress has played in defining the scope and nature of those programs. It begins with an overview of contemporary federal grant-in-aid programs and then examines their evolution over time, focusing on the internal and external factors that have influenced congressional decisions concerning federal grant-in-aid programs. It concludes with an assessment of the scope and nature of the contemporary federal grants-in-aid system and raises several issues for congressional consideration, including possible ways to augment congressional capacity to provide effective oversight of this system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Service by a Member of Congress in the U.S. Armed Forces Reserves

Service by a Member of Congress in the U.S. Armed Forces Reserves

Date: June 10, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report will analyze the legal issues related to Members of Congress serving in the Armed Forces Reserves during their congressional tenure. It will discuss previous congressional action regarding Members' simultaneous service as well as federal legislation addressing the status of Reservists. It will also analyze court decisions related to challenges to simultaneous service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-2009

Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-2009

Date: June 5, 2009
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Palmer, Betsy
Description: This report discusses Senate procedure relating to Supreme Court nominations from 1789 to the present, but excluding the June 1, 2009 nomination of Sonia Sotomayor.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Defense "Section 1207" Security and Stabilization Assistance: Background and Congressional Concerns

Department of Defense "Section 1207" Security and Stabilization Assistance: Background and Congressional Concerns

Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Description: Section 1207 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006 provides authority for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transfer to the State Department up to $100 million per fiscal year in defense articles, services, training or other support for reconstruction, stabilization, and security activities in foreign countries. The 111th Congress must decide whether to extend Section 1207, which expires on September 30, 2009. This report discusses what issues Congress must take into consideration when making this decision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Major U.S. Arms Sales and Grants to Pakistan Since 2001

Major U.S. Arms Sales and Grants to Pakistan Since 2001

Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: A brief listing of major arms sales and grants made to Pakistan since 2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Date: June 2, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J. & Mason, R. C.
Description: This report begins by providing a general background on the types of international agreements that are binding upon the United States, as well as considerations affecting whether they take the form of a treaty or an executive agreement. Next, the report discusses historical precedents as to the role that security agreements have taken. The report discusses the oversight role that Congress exercises with respect to entering and implementing international agreements involving the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900 - 2009

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900 - 2009

Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Rutkus, Denis Steven
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process). This report focuses on when the Senate became aware of the President's selection (e.g., via a public announcement by the President).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gun Control: Statutory Disclosure Limitations on ATF Firearms Trace Data and Multiple Handgun Sales Reports

Gun Control: Statutory Disclosure Limitations on ATF Firearms Trace Data and Multiple Handgun Sales Reports

Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Description: This report briefly describes a provision known as the "Tiahrt" amendment, a rider on the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) appropriations that prohibits ATF from disclosing firearm trace data and multiple handgun sales reports data for any purpose other than supporting a criminal investigatoin or agency licensing proceeding. The Tiahrt amendment is so called because its sponsor is Representative Todd Tiahrt. A coalition of 210 city mayors favors the repeal of this rider, but there is much opposition to that motion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: May 19, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report details the 2007 restructuring of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's plans for the LCS program. The LCS program raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in Agency Travel Card Programs

Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in Agency Travel Card Programs

Date: May 13, 2009
Creator: Hatch, Garrett
Description: This report begins by discussing the structure of agency travel card programs, and then discusses weaknesses in agency controls that have contributed to waste, fraud, and abuse. It concludes with observations on the information available to Congress for oversight of agency travel card programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups

Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups

Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Description: This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Senate Consideration of Presidential Nominations: Committee and Floor Procedure

Senate Consideration of Presidential Nominations: Committee and Floor Procedure

Date: May 8, 2009
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report describes the process by which the Senate provides advice and consent on presidential nominations, including receipt and referral of nominations, committee practices, and floor procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: May 5, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy is procuring a new type of surface combatant called the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The Navy wants to procure a total of 55 LCSs. This report details the 2007 restructuring of the LCS program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's plans for the LCS program. The LCS program raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program, all of which are explored within this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: April 29, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy has begun a multi-billion dollar program to modernize its 84 existing Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years. This report explores this program in detail, including the reasons for the program and the oversight issues it poses for Congress. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Date: April 21, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren; Blanchard, Christopher M.; O'Rourke, Ronald; Mason, R. C. & King, Rawle O.
Description: This report discusses recent attacks -- including those on U.S.-flagged vessels -- in the waters off the Horn of Africa, which have brought new U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2009

Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2009

Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: Aid and military reimbursements made to Pakistan from 2002-2009. The list is divided by agency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Morelli, Vincent; Ek, Carl; Belkin, Paul; Woehrel, Steven & Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the current status of NATO membership following the April 2-4, 2008 NATO summit in Bucharest, Romania. A principal issue was consideration of the candidacies for membership of Albania, Croatia, and Macedonia. The allies agreed to extend invitations to Albania and Croatia. Although the alliance determined that Macedonia met the qualifications for NATO membership, Greece blocked the invitation due to an enduring dispute over Macedonia's name.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments

Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments

Date: March 10, 2009
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Parliamentary-Style Question Period: Proposals and Issues for Congress

A Parliamentary-Style Question Period: Proposals and Issues for Congress

Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Description: This report surveys how question periods are conducted in Britain and other parliamentary democracies, examines previous proposals for question periods in the United States, considers potential advantages and disadvantages of a question period, and outlines some legislative considerations for policymakers considering a question period for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nigeria

Nigeria

Date: February 20, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the current political climate of Nigeria and the resulting issues for Congress. Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa, with an estimated 146 million people, is one of the United States government's key strategic partners on the continent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Israel and Hamas: Conflict in Gaza

Israel and Hamas: Conflict in Gaza

Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Zanotti, Jim; Migdalovitz, Carol; Sharp, Jeremy M.; Addis, Casey L.; Blanchard, Christopher M. & Margesson, Rhoda
Description: This report closely examines the conflict in Gaza (2008-2009), assessing the impact of the conflict on civilians, possible consequences and unresolved issues, the regional and international implications and possible modes of action for the 111th Congress to consider in response.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Administration: Workloads, Resources, and Service Delivery

Social Security Administration: Workloads, Resources, and Service Delivery

Date: February 6, 2009
Creator: Romig, Kathleen
Description: This report provides an overview of SSA's workloads, resources, and service delivery since FY1996, the first full fiscal year in which SSA became an independent agency. It also covers issues for Congress, focusing on recommendations made by the independent SSAB, Government Accountability Office, SSA's Office of the Inspector General, and the National Research Council.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them

Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them

Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Foley, Cassandra L.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of federal statutes and where to find them, both in print and on the Internet.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department