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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2001
This report identifies the committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 209 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2074/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1499/
Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power
When conducting investigations of the executive branch, congressional committees and Members of Congress generally receive the information required for legislative needs. If agencies fail to cooperate or the President invokes executive privilege, Congress can turn to a number of legislative powers that are likely to compel compliance. The two techniques described in this report are the issuance of subpoenas and the holding of executive officials in contempt. These techniques usually lead to an accommodation that meets the needs of both branches. Litigation is used at times, but federal judges generally encourage congressional and executive parties to settle their differences out of court. The specific examples in this report explain how information disputes arise and how they are resolved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4023/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005
Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7142/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 228 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7141/
Brief Facts About Congressional Pensions
This report contains a table that lists the number of retired Members of Congress and the average amount of congressional pension they receive in retirement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26054/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 107th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 107th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2292/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report provides information on the 33 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, including 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. These Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines were a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Information on Members and territorial delegates includes party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2259/
Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges
This report discusses the circumstances surrounding COOP planning, including provisions for alternative meeting sites and methods for conducting House and Senate meetings and floor sessions when Capitol facilities are not available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4007/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report provides information on the 33 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, including 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. These Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines were a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Information on Members and territorial delegates includes party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3953/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 109th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 109th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7902/
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
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Expulsion and Censure Actions Taken by the Full Senate Against Members
The Senate has censured nine Senators for various misconduct, including conduct not a violation of any law or specific written Senate ethics rule, when such conduct is found contrary to "acceptable norms of ethical conduct in the Senate," contrary to "accepted morals" and "senatorial ethics," when found to "derogate from the public trust expected of a Senator," and/or found to be "reprehensible" conduct which brings the Senate into "dishonor and disrepute." Conduct resulting in Senate "censure" has included violating orders of secrecy of documents; fighting in the Senate ("censure"); allowing a lobbyist with interests in particular legislation to be on official staff with access to the secret considerations of the legislation by committee ("condemn"); non-cooperation and abuse of investigating committees of the Senate ("condemn"); financial irregularities concerning political contributions ("censure"), office expenses and contributions ("denounce"), and excessive honoraria, official reimbursements and gifts ("denounce"). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26033/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462118/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463361/
Salaries of Members of Congress: A List of Payable Rates and Effective Dates, 1789-2008
This report summarizes by what measures the Constitution requires Congress to determine its own pay, the annual payment adjustment procedure, changes in pay over time since 1789, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29501/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
In the Summer of 2005, Congress focused on several Clean Air Act Issues before the August recess. Although the Congressional agenda stated that attention would be given to the needed amendments of the Clear Skies/Multi-Pollutant Legislation, this progress was stalled, and the committee failed to approve the bill due to a tied vote. This otherwise stagnated debate was given some attention due to the discussions over mercury regulations as they apply to power plants. The outcome of the decision concerning these regulations has stirred controversy in at least fifteen states. Perhaps the most debated issue that Congress covered concerned MTBE and Ethanol, which have been used to meet the Clean Air Act requirements that reformulated gasoline (RFG), sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas, contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion. Air quality standard deadlines and provisions, specifically in the most severe ozone nonattainment areas, were discussed by Congress. Discussions over the Clean Air Act also sparked discussions over environmental regulations concerning related issues, including the Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs, and Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85367/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85366/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10108/
House Rules Manual: Summary of Contents
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1475/
Unanimous Consent Agreements in the Senate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1472/
Congressional Oversight
Congressional oversight of policy implementation and administration, which has occurred throughout the U.S. government experience under the Constitution, takes a variety of forms and utilizes various techniques. These range from specialized investigations by select committees to annual appropriations hearings, and from informal communications between Members or congressional staff and executive personnel to the use of extra congressional mechanisms, such as offices of inspector general and study commissions. Oversight, moreover, is supported by a variety of authorities—the Constitution, public law, and chamber and committee rules—and is an integral part of the system of checks and balances between the legislature and the executive digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1471/
The Discharge Rule in the House: Recent Use in Historical Context
The discharge rule of the House of Representatives affords a way for Members to bring to the floor a measure not reported from committee. Before a motion to discharge may be made, 218 Members must sign a petition for that purpose. This report provides summary data on discharge petitions filed since adoption of the present form of discharge rule in 1931. It also identifies the 32 occasions since 1967 on which a committee report or floor action occurred on a measure against which a petition was filed (or an alternative measure on the same subject). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1470/
Types of Committee Hearings
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Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of Bills
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How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1511/
The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1510/
Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1518/
House Committee Organization and Process: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1514/
House Leadership Structure: Overview of Party Organization
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1519/
House and Senate Chaplains
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1513/
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the Senate Floor
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1121/
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1120/
Prisons: Policy Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1123/
"Sense of" Resolutions and Provisions
One or both houses of Congress may formally express opinions about subjects of current national interest through freestanding simple or concurrent resolutions (called generically "sense of the House," "sense of the Senate," or "sense of the Congress" resolutions). These opinions may also be added to pending legislative measures by amendments expressing the views of one or both chambers. This fact sheet identifies the various forms such expressions may take and the procedures governing such actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1488/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1628/
The House's Corrections Calendar
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Senate Floor Procedure: A Summary
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Floor Procedure in the House of Representatives: A Brief Overview
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The Discharge Rule in the House: Principal Features and Uses
The “discharge rule” of the House of Representatives allows a measure to come to the floor for consideration, even if the committee of referral does not report it and the leadership does not schedule it. To initiate this action, a majority of House Members must first sign a petition for that purpose. The rule permits either (1) the committee of referral to be discharged from the measure itself; or (2) the Committee on Rules to be discharged from a special rule for considering the measure. Layover periods required by the rule permit the Committee on Rules to preempt a discharge attempt, and recover control of the floor agenda, by securing adoption of an alternative special rule for considering the measure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1466/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10039/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 109th Congress
Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected Clean Water Act (CWA) programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. In the 109th Congress, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee has approved S. 1400, a bill authorizing $20 billion in federal grants to capitalize state clean water infrastructure loan programs. Also, a House committee has approved bills to reauthorize several Clean Water Act programs: H.R. 624 would provide $1.5 billion in grants over six years for sewer overflow projects; H.R. 1359 would extend a pilot program for alternative water source projects; H.R. 1721 would reauthorize coastal water quality programs; and H.R. 3963 would extend the Long Island Sound Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10081/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
This report discuss issues that received congressional attention in the 107th Congress, such as The impact of air quality regulations, key water quality issues, superfund, solid/hazardous wastes, multibillion dollar cleanup and compliance programs, climate change, pesticides, EPA budget, and Science and Technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10013/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 109th Congress
Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected Clean Water Act (CWA) programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. In the 109th Congress, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee has approved S. 1400, a bill authorizing $20 billion in federal grants to capitalize state clean water infrastructure loan programs. Also, a House committee has approved bills to reauthorize several Clean Water Act programs: H.R. 624 would provide $1.5 billion in grants over six years for sewer overflow projects; H.R. 1359 would extend a pilot program for alternative water source projects; H.R. 1721 would reauthorize coastal water quality programs; and H.R. 3963 would extend the Long Island Sound Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10080/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
This report discuss issues that received congressional attention in the 107th Congress, such as The impact of air quality regulations, key water quality issues, superfund, solid/hazardous wastes, multibillion dollar cleanup and compliance programs, climate change, pesticides, EPA budget, and Science and Technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10010/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th Congress
Environmental protection concerns span a wide variety of issues, including clear air, water quality, chemical security, and environmental aspects of other major issue areas, such as energy, transportation, disaster relief and cleanup, and defense. This report provides an overview of key environmental issues receiving attention in the 109th Congress. A number of environmental measures have been the subject of congressional activity, some of them as part of comprehensive bills and laws on broader subjects such as energy and transportation. Appropriations for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) affect many of the programs and issues discussed in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10327/
House Schedule: Recent Practices and Proposed Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1507/
Major Leadership Election Contests in the Senate: A 27-Year Survey
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1504/
Major Leadership Election Contests in the House of Representatives, 94th - 107th Congresses
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1503/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10514/