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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Congressional Budget Actions in 2002
During the second session of the 107th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY2003 (which will begin on October 1, 2002) and beyond, but some may make adjustments to the budget for FY2002. As the congressional session progresses, this issue brief will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2287/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2002
During the second session of the 107th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY2003 (which will begin on October 1, 2002) and beyond, but some may make adjustments to the budget for FY2002. As the congressional session progresses, this issue brief will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2284/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2002
During the second session of the 107th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY2003 (which will begin on October 1, 2002) and beyond, but some may make adjustments to the budget for FY2002. As the congressional session progresses, this issue brief will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2286/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2002
During the second session of the 107th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY2003 (which will begin on October 1, 2002) and beyond, but some may make adjustments to the budget for FY2002. As the congressional session progresses, this issue brief will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2283/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which began on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4015/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which began on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4012/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures will pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which will begin on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also will pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4011/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which began on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4010/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which began on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4014/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which began on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4013/
Decorum in House Debate
The basic standards of decorum that govern remarks made in the House of Representatives are described in this report. The report also discusses the procedure for "words taken down" and other mechanisms used in the House for enforcing these standards. The standards and mechanisms covered here include those set forth in House rules, related sections of Jefferson's Manual, published precedents, and supplementary policy statements by the Speaker. Also provided are examples from the 103rd-105th Congress of words spoken in House floor debate that led to one or more enforcement mechanisms being invoked. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs912/
The Discharge Rule in the House: Principal Features and Uses
The “discharge rule” of the House of Representatives allows a measure to come to the floor for consideration, even if the committee of referral does not report it and the leadership does not schedule it. To initiate this action, a majority of House Members must first sign a petition for that purpose. The rule permits either (1) the committee of referral to be discharged from the measure itself; or (2) the Committee on Rules to be discharged from a special rule for considering the measure. Layover periods required by the rule permit the Committee on Rules to preempt a discharge attempt, and recover control of the floor agenda, by securing adoption of an alternative special rule for considering the measure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1466/
The Discharge Rule in the House: Recent Use in Historical Context
The discharge rule of the House of Representatives affords a way for Members to bring to the floor a measure not reported from committee. Before a motion to discharge may be made, 218 Members must sign a petition for that purpose. This report provides summary data on discharge petitions filed since adoption of the present form of discharge rule in 1931. It also identifies the 32 occasions since 1967 on which a committee report or floor action occurred on a measure against which a petition was filed (or an alternative measure on the same subject). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1470/
The Discharge Rule in the House: Recent Use in Historical Context
The discharge rule of the House of Representatives affords a way for Members to bring to the floor a measure not reported from committee. Before a motion to discharge may be made, 218 Members must sign a petition for that purpose. This report provides summary data on discharge petitions filed since adoption of the present form of discharge rule in 1931. It also identifies the 32 occasions since 1967 on which a committee report or floor action occurred on a measure against which a petition was filed (or an alternative measure on the same subject). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3955/
Congressional Oversight
Congressional oversight of policy implementation and administration, which has occurred throughout the U.S. government experience under the Constitution, takes a variety of forms and utilizes various techniques. These range from specialized investigations by select committees to annual appropriations hearings, and from informal communications between Members or congressional staff and executive personnel to the use of extra congressional mechanisms, such as offices of inspector general and study commissions. Oversight, moreover, is supported by a variety of authorities—the Constitution, public law, and chamber and committee rules—and is an integral part of the system of checks and balances between the legislature and the executive digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1471/
Congressional Oversight
Congressional oversight of policy implementation and administration, which has occurred throughout the U.S. government experience under the Constitution, takes a variety of forms and utilizes various techniques. These range from specialized investigations by select committees to annual appropriations hearings, and from informal communications between Members or congressional staff and executive personnel to the use of extra congressional mechanisms, such as offices of inspector general and study commissions. Oversight, moreover, is supported by a variety of authorities—the Constitution, public law, and chamber and committee rules—and is an integral part of the system of checks and balances between the legislature and the executive digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs411/
Congressional Oversight Manual
Throughout its history, Congress has engaged in oversight of the executive branch - the review, monitoring, and supervision of the implementation of public policy. The first several Congresses inaugurated such important oversight techniques as special investigations, reporting requirements, resolutions of inquiry, and use of the appropriations process to review executive activity. Contemporary developments, moreover, have increased the legislature's capacity and capabilities to check on and check the Executive. Public laws and congressional rules have measurably enhanced Congress's implied power under the Constitution to conduct oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40175/
Congressional Pay
The question of a salary increase for Members of Congress was considered by both Houses numerous times during the 97th Congress. The issue was last considered during December in the FY83 Further Continuing Appropriations. As sent to the President, the measure provided for a 15% pay increase for Members of the House of Representatives and other senior Federal officials, but not for Senators. The resolution was signed into law by the President on Dec. 21, 1982. Previously, in September, Congress approved a pay cap through Dec. 17, 1982 for Members and other senior Federal officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8594/
Congressional Veto Legislation: 97th Congress
This report has two purposes: first, to describe briefly the main features of each kind of congressional veto procedure, and second, to list under appropriated categories all such provisions submitted in the current Congress that have been located. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8595/
Congressional Record: Its Production, Distribution, and Accessibility
The Congressional Record is the most widely recognized published account of the debates and activities in Congress. The Record often reflects the intent of Congress in enacting legislation. This fact sheet is one of a series on the legislative process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3959/
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 99th Congress, First Session
This report presents the proceedings and debates of the 99th Congress, first session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8169/
Congressional Roll Call and Other Record Votes: First Congress Through 107th Congress (First Session), 1789 Through 2001
This compilation provides information on roll call and other record votes taken in the House of Representatives and Senate from the first Congress through the 107th Congress (first session), 1789 through 2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2288/
Congressional Salaries and Allowances
Report that provides basic information on congressional salaries and allowances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227951/
Congressional Statistics: Bills Introduced and Laws Enacted, 1947-2003
This report is designed to fill the need for a simple tabulation of legislative workload. It provides the numbers of bills and joint resolutions introduced, and the numbers of public and private laws enacted, from the 80' Congress through the 108th Congress, first session (1947-2003). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5760/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
In the Summer of 2005, Congress focused on several Clean Air Act Issues before the August recess. Although the Congressional agenda stated that attention would be given to the needed amendments of the Clear Skies/Multi-Pollutant Legislation, this progress was stalled, and the committee failed to approve the bill due to a tied vote. This otherwise stagnated debate was given some attention due to the discussions over mercury regulations as they apply to power plants. The outcome of the decision concerning these regulations has stirred controvery in at least fifteen states. Perhaps the most debated issue that Congress covered concerned MTBE and Ethanol, which have been used to meet the Clean Air Act requiremnets that reformulated gasoline(RFG), sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas, contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion. Air quality standard deadlines and provisions, specifically in the most severe ozone nonattainment areas, were discussed by Congress. Dsicussions over the Clean Air Act also sparked discussions over environmental regulations concerning related issues, including the Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs, and Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83872/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83871/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83874/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83873/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 109th Congress
Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected Clean Water Act (CWA) programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. In the 109th Congress, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee has approved S. 1400, a bill authorizing $20 billion in federal grants to capitalize state clean water infrastructure loan programs. Also, a House committee has approved bills to reauthorize several Clean Water Act programs: H.R. 624 would provide $1.5 billion in grants over six years for sewer overflow projects; H.R. 1359 would extend a pilot program for alternative water source projects; H.R. 1721 would reauthorize coastal water quality programs; and H.R. 3963 would extend the Long Island Sound Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10081/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 109th Congress
Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected Clean Water Act (CWA) programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. In the 109th Congress, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee has approved S. 1400, a bill authorizing $20 billion in federal grants to capitalize state clean water infrastructure loan programs. Also, a House committee has approved bills to reauthorize several Clean Water Act programs: H.R. 624 would provide $1.5 billion in grants over six years for sewer overflow projects; H.R. 1359 would extend a pilot program for alternative water source projects; H.R. 1721 would reauthorize coastal water quality programs; and H.R. 3963 would extend the Long Island Sound Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10080/
Committee of the Whole: An Introduction
The House of Representatives uses this parliamentary device to take procedural advantage of a somewhat different set of rules governing proceedings in the Committee than those governing proceedings in the House. The purpose is to expedite legislative consideration. This report briefly reviews the history of the Committee of the Whole, describes the current procedure associated with it, and identifies its procedural advantages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4028/
The Committee System in the U.S. Congress
Due to the high volume and complexity of its work, Congress divides its tasks among approximately 44 committees with 154 subcommittees. The House and Senate each has its own committee systems, which are similar. Within chamber guidelines, however, each committee adopts its own rules; thus, there is considerable variation among panels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs183/
Committee Types and Roles
This report briefly describes the structure of the congressional committee system and the types of congressional committees, as well as congressional subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29533/
Committee Types and Roles
There are three main types of committees—standing, select, and joint. Most committees form subcommittees to share specific tasks within the jurisdiction of the full committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2267/
Committee Types and Roles
This report briefly describes the structure of the congressional committee system and the types of congressional committees, as well as congressional subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83847/
Suspension of Rules in the House: Measure Sponsorship by Party
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7042/
House and Senate Chaplains
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6944/
Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6451/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th Congress
Environmental protection concerns span a wide variety of issues, including clean air, water quality, chemical security, and environmental aspects of other major issue areas such as transportation and defense. This issue brief provides an overview of key environmental issues that are receiving or may receive attention in the 109th Congress. The sections on specific issues contain references to more detailed and extensive CRS reports on the subjects covered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6633/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 106th Congress
This report discuses issues such as Reforming Superfund, defense cleanup compliance, funding measures, beach assessment, air-related risk management plans, and research received congressional attention in the 106th Congress, first session. In the remaining days, there may be action related on water quality programs involving specific water bodies, and funding of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1184/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4538/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4539/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4540/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5884/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5885/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1159/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1628/
Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4390/
Environmental Protection Issues: From the 104th to the 105th Congress
The continued interest in regulatory reform measures in the final moments of the 104th Congress suggests that the 105th Congress will consider them again. At the same time the fact that the 104th Congress enacted flexibility provisions in drinking water and food safety/pesticides legislation could be an indicator that the 105th Congress may pursue reforms in individual reauthorization legislation rather than in broad regulatory reform bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs436/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
This report discuss issues that received congressional attention in the 107th Congress, such as The impact of air quality regulations, key water quality issues, superfund, solid/hazardous wastes, multibillion dollar cleanup and compliance programs, climate change, pesticides, EPA budget, and Science and Technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1684/