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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules

Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules

Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA), there are statutory limits (caps) on the level of federal discretionary spending, enforced by across-the-board spending cuts, known as a sequester. If, however, spending is designated as emergency by both the President and Congress, it will not trigger a sequester, because the caps are adjusted automatically by an amount equal to the emergency spending. Since the BEA was first enacted in 1990, both the House and Senate have supplemented its provisions with additional limitations in their respective rules concerning the use of emergency designations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions

Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions

Date: June 25, 1998
Creator: Bite, Vita
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and "Falun Gong"

China and "Falun Gong"

Date: August 3, 2001
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and "Falun Gong"

China and "Falun Gong"

Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: “Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and "Falun Gong"

China and "Falun Gong"

Date: November 1, 2002
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: “Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and "Falun Gong"

China and "Falun Gong"

Date: February 12, 2003
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: “Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards

A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A
Description: This report is designed to help congressional offices obtain information about major awards given by Congress and the President. It lists details about the establishment, criteria, selection process, and presentation of each of the major presidential and congressional awards: Congressional Award, Congressional Gold Medal, Medal of Honor, Presidential Citizens Medal, and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Brief entries are provided for additional awards made by the President including two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): the GWOT Expeditionary Medal and the GWOT Service Medal. Contact information for the organization responsible for making the award and for more data about an award is provided. References to CRS products on awards are also given.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards

A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards

Date: December 16, 2003
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A
Description: This report is designed to help congressional offices obtain information about major awards given by Congress and the President. It lists details about the establishment, criteria, selection process, and presentation of each of the major presidential and congressional awards: Congressional Award, Congressional Gold Medal, Medal of Honor, Presidential Citizens Medal, and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Brief entries are provided for additional awards made by the President including two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): the GWOT Expeditionary Medal and the GWOT Service Medal. Contact information is provided for the organization responsible for making the award and for more data about an award. References to CRS products on awards are also given. This report will be updated as necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Going to Conference in the Senate

Going to Conference in the Senate

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Going to Conference in the Senate

Going to Conference in the Senate

Date: April 21, 2003
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth & Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Guiding a Bill Through the Legislative Process

Guiding a Bill Through the Legislative Process

Date: April 4, 1994
Creator: Nickels, Ilona B
Description: This report describes each stage of the legislative process that legislative assistants may find helpful as they seek to further the progress of a specific bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry

Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry

Date: April 7, 1995
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Description: This report will provide an overview of some of the more common legal, procedural and practical issues, questions, and problems that committees have faced in the course of an investigation. Following a summary of the case law developing the scope and limitations of the power of inquiry, the essential tools of investigative oversight--subpoenas, staff interviews and depositions, grants of immunity, and the contempt power -- are described. Next, some of the special problems of investigating the executive are detailed, with particular emphasis on claims of presidential executive privilege, the problems raised by attempts to access information with respect to open or closed civil or criminal investigative matters, or to obtain information that is part of the agency deliberative process, and the effect on congressional access of statutory prohibitions on public disclosure. The discussion then focuses on various procedural and legal requirements that accompany the preparation for, and conduct of, an investigative hearing, including matters concerning jurisdiction, particular rules and requirements for the conduct of such proceedings, and the nature, applicability and scope of certain constitutional and common law testimonial privileges that may be claimed by witnesses. The case law and practice respecting the rights of minority party members during the ...
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The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction

The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction

Date: July 30, 1996
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses the complicated body of rules, precedents, and practices that governs the legislative process on the floor of the House of Representatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Committee System in the U.S. Congress

The Committee System in the U.S. Congress

Date: May 10, 1995
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Description: Due to the high volume and complexity of its work, Congress divides its tasks among approximately 44 committees with 154 subcommittees. The House and Senate each has its own committee systems, which are similar. Within chamber guidelines, however, each committee adopts its own rules; thus, there is considerable variation among panels.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction

The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction

Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth & Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses the complicated body of rules, precedents, and practices that governs the legislative process on the floor of the House of Representatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Staff Depositions in Congressional Investigations

Staff Depositions in Congressional Investigations

Date: December 3, 1999
Creator: Shampansky, Jay R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Term Limits for Members of Congress: State Activity

Term Limits for Members of Congress: State Activity

Date: June 4, 1998
Creator: Richardson, Sula P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Voting and Quorum Procedures in the Senate

Voting and Quorum Procedures in the Senate

Date: June 16, 2003
Creator: Palmer, Betsy & Bach, Stanley
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction

The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction

Date: November 8, 2002
Creator: Carr, Thomas P & Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses the legislative process on the senate floor; the right of extended debate that permits filibusters that can be brought to an end if the Senate invokes cloture, usually by a vote of three-fifths of all Senators.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress' Early Organization Meetings

Congress' Early Organization Meetings

Date: July 30, 1996
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Description: The purposes of these meetings are both educational and organizational. Educational sessions range from legislative procedures and staff hiring to current issues. Organizational sessions elect class officers, party leaders, and chamber officers; name committee representatives and other party officials; and select committee chairmen and often committee members. Such actions are officially ratified at the start of the new Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction

How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction

Date: February 5, 1997
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: This report presents a brief description of the five methods used to bring proposed legislation to the House floor for consideration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction

Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction

Date: July 29, 1996
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: Conference committees generally are free to conduct their negotiations as they choose, but they are to address only the matters on which the House and Senate have disagreed. Moreover, they are to propose settlements that represent compromises between the positions of the two houses. When they have completed their work, they submit a conference report and joint explanatory statement, and the House and Senate vote on accepting the report without amendments. Sometimes conference reports are accompanied by amendments that remain in disagreement. Only after the two houses have reached complete agreement on all provisions of a bill can it be sent to the President for his approval or veto.
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Congressional Statistics: Bills Introduced and Laws Enacted, 1947-2003

Congressional Statistics: Bills Introduced and Laws Enacted, 1947-2003

Date: March 3, 2004
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E
Description: This report is designed to fill the need for a simple tabulation of legislative workload. It provides the numbers of bills and joint resolutions introduced, and the numbers of public and private laws enacted, from the 80' Congress through the 108th Congress, first session (1947-2003).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Administrative Reorganization: 104th Congress

House Administrative Reorganization: 104th Congress

Date: September 13, 1996
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S & Tong, Lorraine H
Description: This report discusses the management responsibility for financial, security, and legislative operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department