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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture: Prospective Issues for Congress
A number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture could receive attention during the 109th Congress. Some are related to new initiatives or to unfinished legislation from the 108th Congress; others have been the focus of ongoing congressional oversight. Although the current (2002) farm bill (P.L. 107-171) generally does not expire until 2007, the agriculture committees could begin hearings on a new measure as early as 2005. The farm bill spells out the types and levels of benefits provided to producers and landowners under commodity price support and conservation programs, both of which could receive close scrutiny in the coming year as lawmakers seek ways to control federal spending. Other concerns include agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease); interest in multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; the rising cost of energy on farms; environmental issues; and a number of agricultural marketing matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6726/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
A number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture have been or are being addressed by the 109th Congress. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), enacted in February 2006, included a net reduction in spending on U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandatory programs of $2.7 billion over five years, and the reauthorization of a dairy income support program. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the second session of the 109th Congress include the consideration of emergency farm disaster assistance; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and avian flu); high energy costs; environmental issues; agricultural marketing matters; the reauthorization of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; and farm labor issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10135/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
A number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture are receiving attention during the 109th Congress. Some are related to new initiatives or to unfinished legislation from the 108th Congress; others have been the focus of ongoing congressional oversight. Although the current (2002) farm bill (P.L. 107-171) generally does not expire until 2007, the agriculture committees could begin hearings on a new measure later this year. Meanwhile, the agriculture committees are required by the adopted FY2006 budget resolution to report legislation that reduces spending on mandatory food and agriculture support programs by $3 billion over the next five years. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the 109th Congress include the possible reauthorization of an expiring dairy support program; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and Asian soybean rust); high energy costs; environmental issues; and a number of agricultural marketing matters. This report will be updated if significant developments ensue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8068/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
A number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture are receiving attention during the 109th Congress. The agriculture committees are required by the FY2006 budget resolution to report legislation this year that reduces spending on mandatory food and agriculture support programs by $3 billion over the next five years. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the 109th Congress include the possible reauthorization of an expiring dairy support program; consideration of emergency farm disaster assistance; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and avian flu); high energy costs; environmental issues; and a number of agricultural marketing matters. This report will be updated if significant developments ensue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8069/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
A number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture are receiving attention in the 109th Congress. The conference agreement on the FY2006 omnibus budget reconciliation bill includes a net reduction in spending on U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandatory programs of $2.7 billion over five years, and the reauthorization of a dairy income support program. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the second session of the 109th Congress include the possible consideration of emergency farm disaster assistance; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and avian flu); high energy costs; environmental issues; agricultural marketing matters, and the reauthorization of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. This report will be updated as significant developments ensue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8285/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
A number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture are receiving attention during the 109th Congress. Some are related to new initiatives or to unfinished legislation from the 108th Congress; others have been the focus of ongoing congressional oversight. The agriculture committees are required by the FY2006 budget resolution to report legislation this year that reduces spending on mandatory food and agriculture support programs by $3 billion over the next five years. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the 109th Congress include the possible reauthorization of an expiring dairy support program; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and Asian soybean rust); high energy costs; environmental issues; and a number of agricultural marketing matters. Although the current (2002) farm bill (P.L. 107-171) generally does not expire until 2007, the agriculture committees could begin hearings on a new measure later this year. This report will be updated if significant developments ensue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7333/
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used
This report provides background information regarding the bill and joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs913/
Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses
In addition to bill and/or joint resolution this report presents two other acts of congress; 1) nominations and 2) treaties. It also discusses the characteristics and uses of six different kind of business before Congress, such as designation, origin, deadline for action, requirements for approval, and use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs915/
Engrossment, Enrollment, and Presentation of Legislation
Engrossment, enrollment, and presentation of legislation are technical components of the legislative process. They attest to the accuracy of bill texts, confirm passage by the House and Senate, and confirm delivery of the bills to the President for his review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs918/
Sources of Legislative Proposals: A Descriptive Introduction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8182/
Congressional Budget Actions in 2004
During the second session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate considered many different budgetary measures. Most of them pertained to FY2005 (referred to as the “budget year”) and beyond. In addition, some made adjustments to the budget for FY2004 (referred to as the “current year”). This report describes House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7377/
Sources of Legislative Proposals: A Descriptive Introduction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2309/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1499/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5763/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005
Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7142/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5764/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1118/
Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power
When conducting investigations of the executive branch, congressional committees and Members of Congress generally receive the information required for legislative needs. If agencies fail to cooperate or the President invokes executive privilege, Congress can turn to a number of legislative powers that are likely to compel compliance. The two techniques described in this report are the issuance of subpoenas and the holding of executive officials in contempt. These techniques usually lead to an accommodation that meets the needs of both branches. Litigation is used at times, but federal judges generally encourage congressional and executive parties to settle their differences out of court. The specific examples in this report explain how information disputes arise and how they are resolved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4023/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 228 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7141/
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as Senators or as Members of the House of Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8860/
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as U.S. Senators or Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8092/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2003
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 219 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5725/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2001
This report identifies the committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 209 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2074/
Health Benefits for Members of Congress
Report that covers health benefits made available to Members of Congress through federal government employment, including Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), dental and vision insurance, flexible spending accounts, long-term care insurance, services at the Office of the Attending Physician and military hospitals, and Medicare. It also offers a comparison of FEHBP to health benefits offered by the private sector and state and local governments and a discussion of the effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on Members' health benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228133/
Social Media in the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers several questions about the regulation of social media accounts in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287977/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2012
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 276 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87247/
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267886/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267839/
Post Employment, "Revolving Door," Restrictions for Legislative Branch Members and Employees
This report provides a brief discussion of the post-employment restrictions, often called "revolving door" laws, that are applicable to members, officers, and employees of Congress after they leave congressional service or employment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26097/
Brief Facts About Congressional Pensions
This report contains a table that lists the number of retired Members of Congress and the average amount of congressional pension they receive in retirement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26054/
Leaving Congress: House of Representatives and Senate Departures Data Since 198
Members of Congress leave the House or Senate for a variety of reasons; these may include resignation, death, or chamber action during a Congress, and retirement, electoral defeat, or pursuit of another office at the end of a Congress. This report discusses the number of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives who have left before the conclusion of a Congress since 1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31378/
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272077/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272056/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report discusses the impact of women in Congress and historical information, such as the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African-American and Asian-Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282271/
Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945
This report provides profiles of Senators and Representatives in selected Congresses since 1945. It includes data based on Representatives and Senators serving on the first day of the 79th-113th Congresses for several demographic characteristics such as age (including the oldest and youngest Members of the House and Senate), sex, previous occupation, race and ethnicity, education, religion, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282302/
Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations
This report provides an overview and analysis of congressional advisory commissions, information on the general statutory structure of a congressional commission, and a catalog of congressional commissions created since the 101st Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87127/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report provides information on the 33 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, including 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. These Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines were a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Information on Members and territorial delegates includes party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2259/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report provides information on the 33 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, including 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. These Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines were a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Information on Members and territorial delegates includes party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3953/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 107th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 107th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2292/
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
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Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs919/
Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges
This report discusses the circumstances surrounding COOP planning, including provisions for alternative meeting sites and methods for conducting House and Senate meetings and floor sessions when Capitol facilities are not available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4007/
Congress and Foreign Policy: Selected References
This spreading list presents literature on the role of Congress in the conduct of foreign relations. Citations include such topics as the relationship between Congress and the executive, role of committees, and the impact of foreign policy decisions. The focus is on the current literature, but older materials are included to provide historical background on this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9614/
Expulsion and Censure Actions Taken by the Full Senate Against Members
The Senate has censured nine Senators for various misconduct, including conduct not a violation of any law or specific written Senate ethics rule, when such conduct is found contrary to "acceptable norms of ethical conduct in the Senate," contrary to "accepted morals" and "senatorial ethics," when found to "derogate from the public trust expected of a Senator," and/or found to be "reprehensible" conduct which brings the Senate into "dishonor and disrepute." Conduct resulting in Senate "censure" has included violating orders of secrecy of documents; fighting in the Senate ("censure"); allowing a lobbyist with interests in particular legislation to be on official staff with access to the secret considerations of the legislation by committee ("condemn"); non-cooperation and abuse of investigating committees of the Senate ("condemn"); financial irregularities concerning political contributions ("censure"), office expenses and contributions ("denounce"), and excessive honoraria, official reimbursements and gifts ("denounce"). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26033/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 109th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 109th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7902/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
Report that covers the logistics and background of the Congressional Pension program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227962/
Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees: Implications in Federal Criminal Law and Procedure of Events in Tucson
Report describing the federal procedures and attendant legal provisions generally associated with the prosecution of cases regarding the killing and attempted killing of federal officers and employees in the performance of their official duties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227706/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227647/
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) and examines spending patterns over three years--2005, 2006, and 2007. The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Members who were not in Congress for all of the first session of a Congress, whether the Member left Congress prior to the end of the year or entered any time after the beginning of the session, were also excluded. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272003/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271999/